2.0 Introduction A first unit explained all about the presentation. In this unit you are learning about the making of good presentation. You can use powerful way to convey your ideas and convincing your audience. You can include graphics data, written text, audio and videos in your presentation. It is useful to make your perfect speech during the presentation. Your visuals can help to entertain and to give information about the presentation. You should have proper effectively data in your presentation, it can be helpful to convey your message easily to your audience. You should have proper image on the topic otherwise there will be no need to insert image in your presentation. When you are giving the presentation on the sales ideas to the salesman, it required concern image. Fig 2.1 perfectly showing the image required for conveying your ideas regarding sales.
Your audience needs not to read information when you give any image regarding your topic. All story should be explain in image, there will be no need to explain something more after that. You can ask to your audience about the needing more after watching images on the topic covered in your presentations. Following is the more one example to showing all information about the topic of your presentation. When you are giving the presentation on the hill station, you can insert recent image of the hill station. There is no need to explaining about the climate of the hill station.
A picture says thousand words in one minute; you have to sense to read the various data from the images. It is the effective and entertaining way to communicate with your audience. It can very useful and helpful to maintain your audience in your presentation. It saves your times also and makes your presentation meaningful in minimum time. The audience turns their mind with positive attitude after reading the data from the images. Look at the following image about the learning process and it explains the various benefits from the learning element and focus on the element of the learning.
There is a way to insert or add photos and graphics in your presentation. Adding more images in your presentation will not be giving good experience, it turns into bad experience. Take care about the adding image in your presentation. They all are should be related with your topic of the presentation.
Your main purpose of the presentation is a communication; hence you can communicate with your audience by the form of handouts, speeches, images and videos. The objective of the presentation should be clear with your thoughts and information. Visuals should be used to support your speech and not replace it. It plays the vital role in your presentation; you can develop your concepts via visual. Planning about the visual in your presentation is the core part of the successful presentation. You can add image from the design phase and continue all the time till when the finalization and creation of visual is actually done.
2.2 The Basics of File Compression
When you added some images in your presentation, you should check that compatibility of those images to open in any types of computer. Some time when you present your presentation without checking the compatibility some images showing the problems. It need also compression software to compress your file otherwise your file size will increase and it required large storage device.
Your presentation saved with your graphical object and all graphical objects display will depend on your compression software and compatibility of your computers application. It is important to take appropriate care and try to keep the file size as low as possible.
You can use compression software to reduce your file size, there are various types of software available in market. All are used to compress your file in easy way. Actually there file compression software encode your files contents and reduce your size. It takes less space to store your data, you can then easily move from one storage device to another.
You can send it via internet. In this software some phrase replaced by tokens in the form of combination of symbols, alphanumeric keys. The file returns to its original size. There are also two ways compression and decompression done with same software. Compression means to reduce your file size and decompression means to turns your file into original size. Some software s provides self-extracted function. Extraction means the process of decompression file. File compression is needed when your file containing multimedia presentation. The size of these presentations can be huge which makes them unmanageable.
You can handle with the compression applications. When you want to send these types files it creates lots of error. Hence compress these files and no errors will occur during the presentation. There are various types of compression software available and you can easily use during the use of internet. Following are the some examples.
Mostly software compression software website and download it and install on your computer and use. Some free trial versions you can use it for the same period.
Buy license copy from the internet and use it legally website so you can download updated versions. You can reduce the size of your multimedia presentation is that,
you can save your images in various format. This format saved your file in less size.
2.3 Capturing Bitmaps at the Correct Resolution for Projection
Visibility of the image is depending image quality and visibility. It is helpful to increase your audience interest in your presentation.
You can create your file with the multimedia files but it is very time consuming process and also challenging task. It required visibility, clea brightness, contract also an important in your presentation.
Image displayed in various resolutions, sometime when you increase the size of image it lost the visibility and quality. Hence you cannot enlarge it, but the audience required enlarges the image because of visibility. When any image is not visible to the audience then your presentation will not be effective and meaningful. These all problems occurred in the graphical objects i.e. Images, tables, shapes, smart art, charts etc. Following is the one example on the enlarging the size of table inserted in your presentation. When you are created a table in word program and you are going to insert it in your presentation. It lost the lines after inserting it in your presentation. Some time you also face the problem of sound quality or video quality. In table enlarging in the presentation lost style of font, sharpness of the text, line style. Take care of the resizing the table and its location.
In the above figure a table embedded and take screen shots of it, when you enlarge this table in the second figure it lost the table lines. It does not look like as good as on the actual screen. It is slightly blurred and out of focus. The contents of the screen cannot display in proper format as given in the actual table. You can create image in various format but the two types of image formats are as follows
These two formats store images in very different ways. Vector images used the geometrical shapes to draw a images and it required proper measurement unit with drawing instruction. Bitmap images are stored in the form of a pixel of elements. Image showing in dotted resolution. Bitmap image required less storage space as compared to vector image.
In these examples of the images, first image is filled in circle in bitmap format on the left and filled in circle in vector format on the right. In bitmap image the edges are enlarged triangle is jiggered. In the bitmap image there is a limit on the zoom. While you can enlarge vector image at any level, it clarity and visibility will not change and show it in accurate mode.
• Bitmap/Raster Image
Each pixel is described by its color and location in the bitmap image. It means you are dealing with pixel not with its shapes and sizes. The more the number of pixels, the more information can be stored and more detailing and sharpness can be achieved. The sharpness of the image in bitmap is depending on the resolution of the image. The higher the resolution shows the sharper image and lower the resolution created the lower sharpness of the image. When we enlarge the image in bitmap it lost the clarity of the image and also lost sharpness of the image.
There are mostly used software to dealing with bitmap image are the, paint, MT paint, adobe Photoshop etc. Following are the file extension created for the bitmap images.
• JPEG OR JPG (PHOTO SHOP, MS PAINT)
• PNG (MS PAINT)
• BMP (MS PAINT)
You can save bitmap image in various format with its extension, in some methods you might lose data; others help to retain as it is. JPEG format lost the some settings and TIFF format is use to retain the setting regarding the image.
• Vector Image
This types of images created by using geometrical shapes i.e. lines. Every line is described with a mathematical formula and its resolution. In this image scaling is the important because it decides the size of the vector image. Its main feature is that you can enlarge it without losing the image clarity and sharpness. The large size of the image showing details about the image.
Observe the vector image, large image found more clarity as compared to small image. Enlarging the image has shown the detailing. The lower lashes are also visible in the enlarged image. Following are the some examples of the file extensions regarding vector image with application name.
• CDR: Coral Draw
• DXF/DWG : AutoCAD
• AI : Adobe Illustrator
The following are the some factoring for using the bitmaps image.
• Resolution:It is the element which is directly related to its quality. High resolution means high quality of the image and low resolution means low quality of the image. This image showing the number of pixels and the amount of information available for each pixel. Don’t enlarge bitmap if you want the good quality of bitmap image.
• Spatial resolution: It is a measure of the accuracy or detail of a graphic display and it is show as dots per inch, pixel per line, lines per millimeter etc. It can be measure only expression of the image as dot per inch i.e. DPI. Resolution means vertical and horizontal multiplication of the pixel. The resolution of the input and output devices determine the display size. After the enlarging the images, it turns your image in the poor quality and reproduce at optimum quality on an output device of a given resolution. The aspect ratio must be
• Size of image: Scaling of the number. You image should be double when you are going to resize it. Reducing size means the divide the dimension and it should half of the natural size.
The resolution of the image determines the physic image of high resolution will be small than the image with low resolution. You can create a bitmap image with required size and it should be with proper resolution and quality. Accountability of the all various types of images with its different result ion should be maintained.
2.4 Choosing the Right Colors for your Next Pre Some image required good color combination and it is the powerful tool for enhance your presentation and convey the good message to the audience. Some color may be used to convey the message or instruction to the audience in presentation.
You can apply various color combination to impact on your audience effectively and meaningful. You can establish good relationship by using color and sound effect also. Color compliment must be used in your presentation otherwise your presentation will be meaningless. There are some clashes found also when you are not follow the color compliment. You should follow the rules use of color in your presentation.
You can take a advantages of the use color in your presentation. It clearly demonstrates the relationship between colors and mater. There are various colors which are categorized in three main group. Following are the three main group colors combinations.
Primary Colors: In these groups there are three main colors red, blue and yellow. Generally they colors are known are primary colors. The Primary Colors are the root of every other hue imaginable. The primary pigments used in the manufacture of paint come from the pure source element of that Hue. There are no other pigments blended in to alter the formula. Fig C7 displays the primary colors.
Secondary Colors: When you combine any two of the Pure Primary Hues, you get three new mixtures called Secondary Colors. Think of the three Secondary’s as the Children in the family of colors.
Yellow + Red = ORANGE
Red + Blue = VIOLET or PURPLE
Blue + Yellow = GREEN
Tertiary Colors: When you mix a Primary and its nearest secondary on the Basic Color Wheel you create six new mixtures called Tertiary colors.
Think of the six Tertiary Colors as the Grandchildren in the family of colors, since their genetic makeup combines a Primary and Secondary color.
Yellow + Orange = YELLOW-ORANGE
Red + Orange = RED-ORANGE
Red + Violet = RED-VIOLET
Blue + Violet = BLUE-VIOLET
Blue + Green = BLUE-GREEN
Yellow + Green = YELLOW-GREEN
The choice of colors for presentation slides is one of the important decisions that must be made at the start of the process of developing your slides. Most organizations today dictate a template with corporate colors that must be used for all presentations outside the organization as part of a branding initiative. In that case, you have no choice in the colors. But many internal presentations and in many other organizations you can choose your slide colors. So how do you choose? Here are some ideas to keep in mind when choosing colors for your next set of presentation slides.
1.Contrast : It means “To set in opposition, or over against, in order to show the differences between”. One of the most common mistakes in selecting colors for presentation slides is to not have enough contrast between the colors chosen for the background and the text or graphics. If you want the audience to see the text or graphics on the screen,
2. Color Combinations to Avoid : Some colors should not be used together for a variety of reasons, so here are some combinations to avoid:
Red & Green – these two colors clash with each other and are very hard to read. Also, people who have color deficiency will have trouble figuring out what you are trying to say on the slide
Orange & Blue – another pair that causes a disturbing effect on readers as the colors seem to vibrate against one another
Red & Blue – these two colors just do not have enough contrast to be seen well when used together. This combination also seems to suffer a further loss of contrast when projected on a screen.
The best suggestion for the color combination, you use in presentation slides are either a dark background with light text and graphics or a light background with dark text and graphics. Here are the specific colors for the each color scheme.
Dark Background with Light Text and Graphics
• Background – dark purple
• Text and Graphics – white
• Accent Colors – red, lime green, orange, light blue.
Light Background with Dark Text and Graphics
• Background – warm colors
• Text and Graphics – dark blue, black, dark purple, dark violet
• Accent Colors – dark green, burgundy
3.Background Color : You view some presentations and apprehend all of the information. You view others and nothing is clear to you. Why? There are lots of reasons for that and one of them is the coloring. Background and text colors choice is very important and can either help you to make your presentation easy to understand or spoil it since colors influence the perception greatly. So what colors should be chosen? Let’s figure that out! Talking about background colors blue is considered to be the most effective one since it makes you feel confident and secure. This color is universal and can be used in any presentation. Purple and some variants of green, white or grey are also acceptable as background colors.
4.Purpose of color : Warm Colors: Reds, oranges, and yellows. This is a bright, vibrant set that conveys energy and excitement. Think of things that incorporate these colors such as sunshine, roses, sunflowers, bright sunsets, and fruit. Following are the colors with its use and purpose.
Cool Colors: Greens, blues, and purples. This set evokes tranquility, nature, and is believed to have a calming effect. Think of forests, rivers, lavender, and night sky shades.
Monochromatic Colors: Black, white, and grey. A perfect theme to pull background and base colors from because these shades evoke simplicity, sophistication, and purity. Some other factors regarding meaning of color and its purpose.
The Vibrating-Color Headache: Vibrating color combinations are colors that give the illusion that they are vibrating on screen. Not only are they ugly combos, but they can actually give people headaches and have been known to even make some people nauseous. If you need to use bright colors, always use them with a complimentary (neutral) background.
Low Contrast Colors: While subtle color contrast can be great for print design, it rarely works with presentations. A projector is limited in the colors it displays, therefore, colors with little contrast can easily be washed out and “invisible” when projected.
Not So Black and White : Print design can look professional and elegant when only using black and white, but in a presentation, black and white generally look boring and as if little thought was given to the design of the presentation. If a black and white feel is needed, I recommend adding a subtle gradient to blacks and whites to add a little depth/interest.
• Many people have some form of color blindness, that colors are red and green. Avoid the use of these two colors and wherever not possible. Don’t use the more color combination of the red and green. Fig C5 displays the colors as seen by a person with normal eyesight and seen by a color behind person.
• Do not highlight information the bad color combination. You can take a test to find out the color blindness of the audience in your presentation, so that can be helpful to finding color blindness and visualization.
At least you should remember all the above point during and creating your presentation. Keep it simple by using two or three colors and increase your palette with some shade.
2.5 Fonts and PowerPoint : True Type and Postscript
The best presentation fonts are Arial, Tahoma and Verdana. Of these Verdana can be used as a headline font. You can use fancier “sans serif” fonts like Universe and Trebuchet but these have a problem that are not commonly available in most people’s machines. As a result if you use a font like Universe and email it to someone else power point uses its default font and commonly will also use the default formatting. This can make the text quite a mess. You can also email the fonts, but most people have no idea of how these need to be installed. These fancy fonts look very nice, but if you need to distribute your presentation – either by email or for the conference organizers to print out – you would probably be advised to stick with Arial, Tahoma or Verdana. Times New Roman is not suitable as it is a Serif Font. Lots of people misuse it in presentations because they have used it in word documents where it is used to make lots of small text easy to read.
True Type Fonts
TrueType is an outline font standard developed by Apple and Microsoft in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobe’s Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. It has become the most common format for fonts on both the Mac OS and Microsoft Windows operating systems These fonts are fully scalable, which is very useful as you get the option of various sizes for each font. You can use the 32 point for the standard text and 48 point for the slide titles. The advantage of these fonts is that they can be universally used on any machine with the Windows platform. All TrueType fonts have the file extension ‘.ttf’. All the fonts found in the C drive and name of that folder is windows then open font folder.
It can be offered by any platform if the Adobe Type Manager (ATM) is installed. They are similar to TrueType fonts but one advantage is that, there are a wide variety of fonts available. You can use it to create or deliver your presentation. These fonts’ extensions are ‘.pfb’. This font found in windows folder by name of the PS fonts.
These fonts are very difficult and under normal circumstances you can use both types, individually or together without being trouble by the difference. There are various situation for the using these fonts and you can use any fonts as per required in presentation.
2.6 Graphic Types and Electronic Presentations
We learn about the types of images but here you know that, when and where you insert image in your presentation? We can enhance the quality of a presentation and ensure the interest of your audience by adding some simple images. Now here we are learning about the use of raster image and vector inserting ideas as per requirement.
In computer graphics, a raster graphics image is a dot matrix data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or points of color, viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium. Raster images are stored in image files with varying formats.
A bitmap, a single-bit raster corresponds bit-for-bit with an image displayed on a screen, generally in the same format used for storage in the display’s video memory, or maybe as a deviceindependent bitmap. A raster is technically characterized by the width and height of the image in pixels and by the number of bits per pixel .
Vector image is the use of polygons to represent images in computer graphics. Vector graphics are based on vectors, which lead through locations called control points or nodes. Each of these points has a definite position on the x and y axes of the work plane and determines the direction of the path; further, each path may be assigned various attributes, including such values as stroke color, shape, curve, thickness, and fill.
The following are the image elements.
Tone/Color – Tone can be defined as each distinguishable variation from white to black. Color may be defined as each distinguishable variation on an image produced by a multitude of combinations of hue, value and Chroma.
Resolution – Resolution is defined as the ability of the entire photographic system, including lens, exposure, processing, and other factors, to render a sharply defined image. An object or feature must be resolved to be detected and/or identified. Resolution is one of the most difficult concepts to address in image analysis.
Size – The size of objects can be important in discrimination of objects and features (cars vs. trucks or buses; single family vs. multi-family residences, brush vs. trees, etc.). In the use of size as a diagnostic characteristic both the relative and absolute sizes of objects can be important.
Shape – The shape of objects/features can provide diagnostic clues that aid identification. The Pentagon building in Washington is a diagnostic shape. Man-made features have straight edges that natural features tend not to. Roads can have right angle turns, railroads do not.