1.0 Introduction The simple thought of standing in front of audience is discouraging. It becomes worse when the audience consists of outsiders. You are not only one person who faces these problems. The entire presenters are facing the problems regarding the presentation. This originates from the fear of failure, the possibility of not being able to talk or of forgetting what to say. The good way to face this fear is to prepare well for the presentation. Preparing for the presentation does not mean creating a fabulous presentation. There are many other factors to need to make this preparation. Some factors can make a presentation interesting and perfect. Understanding the audiences is most important factors in that and you must know overall thing regarding audience i.e. audience requirement and importance regarding the presentation. Purpose of the presentation and the audience will be the convey message. Who is the audience and what they actually want? A presentation must directly relates to the interests will keep them in presentation. One thing is more that you must avoid common mistakes during presentation and also keep in mind that your presentations importance. Timing is the more important factors in it, durations of breaks, questions and answer session and recap and summaries. All need well planning and perfect timing. Voice modulation, posture and gesture are other ways can be made your presentation interesting. Finally, remember that the most important objectives of communication is not the delivery but the treatment. So be focused on the audience and ignore to a speaker.
1.2 Analyzing an Audience A good presentation targets the need of the audience and who the presentation is being made. Your presentation should provide the meaningful information as per audience requirement. So develop your presentation skills with this requirement and information. Add message so that can helpful to your audience. You can convey this message by the many ways not only good but also bad way. So the make good phrases to convey your ideas and pass it clearly to your audience.
Age Level : There is a vast difference between talking to students and citizen on the same topic. Because the thinking of students and citizens are the different way and also requirement and need of presentation can be different. You need to use word and phrase that will make keep different age audience in one presentation. You have to speak knowledge and information of the target audience.
Designation level : presentation to the lower level officers and higher level officers with the same type of presentation is a sure shortcut way but the both level officers will find different database. You must use more motivation and tricks for lower officers whereas higher level officers will be looking for database and its tools. Hence, it is must require to modify your style according to the hierarchical level of the audience. Information level: What are the major fact audience looking? You must address the major points which will helpful to meaningful presentation. Some examples given as follows:
• When you are showing the product means advertisement. Here you need to look at the details information about the product.
• When you are taking a class, the students are your audience and they are come to learn something. Here you give some tricks, activities and jokes.
• When your presentation is for the small group it means group looking some interesting and entertaining presentation. Hence you give some ideas and message.
• When you are trying to communicate some important ideas and issues, you will focus on the main and important point with your presentation.
1.3 Avoiding Common Mistakes made by Presenters
You must avoid the common mistakes made in during presentations. This mistake reflects on the organizations goodwill and also impact on skills of presenter. Your reputation and integrity is at stake. Therefore, it is important that your presentation should have only the important and meaningful points and avoid unnecessary that does not engage and inform the audience.
You must ensure that your presentation should not be containing any error and rectify it before the presentation.
Important factor avoid in presentation
• Bullet points: It is very important to making your presentation as measurable and effective. However you remember that they are only start up your point not the decoration of your point. It is useful to read your point and to note down it. Your objective is to connect with the audience by inspiring. Use different ideas and approaches to communicate your topic with point wise. Your audience must be involved and take interest in your presentation. Make sensible presentation with mix of activities which connected with your topic. Also you can use graphics, smart art and images to show the details about the topics.
• Legibility: It is most important factor during presentation because the presentation is clearly visible to all the people for the attending. Ensure that is it visible or not before the presentation. Some presentation required charts and table data so the visibility to all audience is important in that. Otherwise audience will not take part in your presentation and feel like the third party people. But when the audience is in big hall and that time visibility is not possible make sure that data should reach them by handouts. Hence your presentation will become meaningful.
• Uninteresting: Its general fact that all presentations are bored. You must note that and apply all things regarding presentation. Make your presentation with some interesting factors and also convey some message which will needful and helpful to your audience. Think out a strategy to include some engaging and educational that will attract the audience. You need to be series and passionate about your presentation.
• Knowledge: your presentation should be with your perfect knowledge. Sometime you will convey message but audience can access it with minimum effort to avoid this. Use innovating ways to associate this information to other points and learn new techniques for the analyzing such knowledge regarding presentation factors. You must have all knowledge about your presentation otherwise audience understood that you are not prepared well or you don’t have any knowledge.
• Uniformity: Good presentation required use of fonts, colors, effect, sizes and other related objects. Use minimum color combination, good font style and size so that can be readable and effective for the audience. Apply different font style for the title, heading and normal matter. It is good idea to create a style file and use it consistently and it is good sign to developing your presentation skills.
• Proofread: Mistakes made by everyone so don’t feel that you are expert and no need to read it once again. Proofread is the good judgment before going to present your idea. Errors are in various format like spelling errors, color combination, data presentation, numerical data entry. Hence proofread is must require with your sensible mind. Additionally get others to review your work. The better the final output required for the better presentation.
1.4 Bad Delivery Habits
Audience identifies the bad delivery habit during the presentation. Hence you must avoid the bad delivery habit with more practice on presentation.
Following are the bad delivery habits
• Reading from slides, scripts or notes: When you are explain the presentation then don’t need to read it. You must proper study on it. But if you start reading directly from it, the audience will feel neglected and lose interest. Then how to avoid it, you should review it again and again so that will help you to avoid reading habit. Spending good time with your presentation for the review is the good sign of great speaker.
• Eye contact: Eye contact is the best way to communicate with audience and understand them in minimum time. Many people have the habit of looking out of window, wall, desk, land and everywhere other than audience. It will show that lack of confidence. Eye contact with audience shows that you are comfortable and confident with your presentation so that can helpful know the missing audience and their attitude. Allot minimum 90% times with eye contact with your audience during presentation.
• Dressing Sense: You must have good dressing sense during the presentation because it will show the seriousness about the presentation. Many speakers come with cheap suits and good shoes combination for the presentation. Spend some time decide and practice on the dressing sense. Sometime occasionally dressing sense or its good idea that dress should be better than other in the event.
• Movement: Some gestures impact on your presentation. Do not shake your hand, neck, and head. Do not shake your legs and jiggles coin and mobile. Don’t forth on your feet and rub your fingers on desk. Use video recording facility in your presentation so that can be helpful to eliminate bad habit gestures. Otherwise nervousness or insecurity on your part and it will lose your confidence.
• Failure to rehearse: Rehearsal is good medicine on the bad habit of presentation. Lack of rehearsal and practice result in bad presentation. You can avoid bad habits after rehearsal on your presentation.
• Lack of confidence: Your presentation delivery must confident and effective. Standing with confidence and attention will make you stiff. Your delivery must animate not like that you are doing some exercises.
1.5 Do not Go Blank During your Presentation
Your preparation for the presentation should be with proper planning and perfect timing. There is chance to going blank when you are facing the first time presentation. Audience is very attentive and listening to every word that you are going to explain and saying. Sometime you are completely lost and there is no one to help you out.
1.5.1 Following are the steps to do in your presentation.
• Don’t take a Burdon: When you are doing a presentation first time does not panic at that time. Take a deep breath and relax.
• Keep your material ready: Make notes on your presentation, distribute it in audience before the presentation. Also keep ready notes on the presentation, it will help you confidently face you audience.
• Plan some Activities: buy some time to think against the going blank, ready some questions or activities so that can be engaged your audience and you can use this time to recall your train of thought.
1.5.2 The following are the point regarding an activity of questions
• Make note on covered point and use it in your activity.
• Plan about the activity on the difficult point, so that can be helpful to familiar by audience.
• Identify the important factor of the presentation and create activity on that and give them to the audience.
1.5.3 You can take following action in the unwanted situation are as follows:
• Make list of questions on the covered topic, so that can be understand by the audience what topics covered with its level.
• Maintain eye contact. It will reduce the fear of audience and improve your confidence to face the unwanted situation.
• Identify the expert participant from the audience, call him and ask him to explain his/her thought on the presentation.
1.6 Eliminating Filler Words and Action
Filler words mean when you present the presentation and there are some situations where you don’t have anything to say. Hence you fill this situation with some filler words i.e. umm, hmmm, ok, well etc.
These words or actions are used automatically; you don’t have any option to control this. With this your presentation can be stopped. The best way to overcome this unwanted behaviors is by replacing it with an acceptable behaviors, such as the following:
• Take a Relax
• Take a deep breath
• Renew eye contact
• Take a pause
You can take some time to relax yourself so that can be making your presentation effective. It can be formed as break and its objective is not to eliminate fillers but to reduce their occurrence such that it does not remain a point of irritation for the audience. You can apply practice session to control on your filler words. Make a recording of your practice session or your real presentation. You have to observe it, note down points from it.
Following are the common fillers and you can fill up as given below:
• Filler that found when you move from one sentence to another sentence. It is the most common filler and you can separate the thoughts of the presenter. At that you take pause and think on the next sentence.
• Filler like ‘okay’, ‘common’, you can fill it some new sentence which are using in your presentation. These fillers found when you move one paragraph to another on paragraph.
• Third fillers found during the concept explanation, when you move from one concept to another concept. Some filler separate the thoughts of the presenter. Example of the filler is that, ‘moving on’, ‘let’s move the next concept’ etc. Following are the actions to taking avoiding filler in the presentation.
• Rehearse your speech which you are using in your presentation, practice on it so that can be helpful to improve your confidence.
• Think and plan on the pauses from the sentence, concept movement, plan the steps using filler between the sentence or concept movement.
• You can stop your speech for the sometime, take pauses and think on the next point. Take a breath and quickly start with the next word or sentence. You can also take training on the filler form the experience people who are facing the audience. Speak with them, ask queries on the presentation. You can you use also a rhythm with your words like that of many professional speaker.
1.7 Giving Your First Public Presentation Emergency and presentation are two opposite thing when you are doing job. Suddenly your boss told you that to make a presentation. You have only someday to prepare and you don’t know what to do and how to do? Your audience will consist of the management of the company. Sometime less time gives your big lesson and good experience also. You can learn lots of thing to making the emergency presentation but it required your good attention. It gives also good support to improve your knowledge of presentation. So the be ready to give your first public presentation t any time We need to be prepared to take on any responsibility even at short notice. The most important point is that you know you subject. The rest that is the presentation can be handled with few tips that can be used as a checklist.
a. Make outline of main topic, first find out the main topic. You must have minimum 10 points for your presentation. Each main point should have minimum 5 lines explanation in statement.
b. Each main one point required one slide with explanation of 5 lines statement. It should have with bullet or number style. Sometime graphics is the good presentation against the more line statements. Each slide must have one image with good color combination. You can inset audio or video clip for the more information.
c. Each presentation required opening and closing slides. Opening slide is to give introduction of topic and yourself, closing slide for the convey message of the short information.
d. You can create your presentation as per given instruction as follows:
• First slide is opening slide with topic introduction and other required information in brief.
• Add one more slide for the opening, you can add company logo, photo.
• There can be one or more closing slide.
• One slide for the summary of the presentation
• One slide for the ‘Thank you’ slide, you can provide you contact information on it.
• Add header and footer to your entire slide with date, slide number and title.
a. Perfect timing makes your presentation as a successful. Take care of timing during presentation. You may use following rules for the maintain timing in your presentation.
• Each main point’s explanation with statement finishes within 5 minutes.
• There are statements in each main point and each statement explanation for 1 minute only.
• 10 main points presentation should not more than 50 minutes.
• 10 minutes for the interruption i.e. asking questions, some activities etc.
• You will end up your 10 points presentation approximately with 1 hour. b. Practice on your presentation is required. Each presentation required minimum 5 hours practice session. Practice with proper planning and with following points.
• Practice session must be with planning.
• Present yourself in front of a mirror and observe your movement and gestures.
• Record your presentation in your recorder, watch it and observe your body language and point delivery.
• Plan your dressing sense with rehearsal; it required minimum 2-3 days before your actual presentation.
• Prepare yourself not only physically but also mentally.
a. When you are ready for your presentation, check all the equipment before the presentation. If repairing is required do it as soon as possible.
b. Your attitude will decide to make an audience keep in presentation with confidence. How to plan your attitude during presentation?
• Divide your audience virtually in three groups. Select three participants from them. Ensure that their location should be in different direction. So you can look at them at any time. It will improve your confidence for the presentation.
• So you can look at them at any time. It will improve your confidence for the presentation.
• When you are explain the main points loot at tree selected. Start from 1st participant from 1st group, then 2nd participant and finally 3rd participant. Remember that these 3 peoples are not special and don’t feel them it too.
1.8 Integrating Movement in Presentation
Movement is the integral part of the presentation. A presentation divides between a presenter and the audience. Audience facing you and you are the only one person, a presenter facing audience. It does not mean that audience will bother you. You should mentally prepare for the presentation. Do movements in presentation as per requirement it can be helpful to your ideas and message convey?
Your movement should be helpful to the overcoming fear and increasing you confidence as figure displayed C11. Do not stick to the podium; move around like need of conveying your message to the audience. Your position should be as three ways for the presenting your points which are as follows: Identify three positions in the room so you can mainly use throughout the presentation. Your first position should be near to the screen. In this you present your main points and showing some important data, images and graphics. This is the main place where you can convey the main points. The second position in the audience and it’s used to explain the statement regarding points. Explanation on statement should be in the audience. It creates your involvement in the audience and it improves your confidence. Third position is the last position and it should be at the behind of audience. This position is used when activities is going on or audience solving assignment regarding presentation.
Hence plan your movement, it is not complicated activity. Rehearse on it and note down point regarding to it. Make note on each movement in your presentation. Abovementioned 3 position is depending on the method of presentation, decide your method then fix your 3 positions. Movement is an important but does it at limited level; otherwise your audience will observe your movement and forget your message delivery. Another effective strategy may be used to make your presentation successful. It includes use of body language, facial expression, and hand movement in the presentation. A presenter communicates more information and feeling through body language than verbal. Response will be on your presentation either positive or negative response by the audience.
1.8.1 Various Forms of Body Language
There are various forms of body language as follows Appearance: How to identify the speaker in audience? Appearance is the answer of that. It plays vital role in the presentation to finding the speaker. Visual contact: Eye contact with the audience is the good way to engage all audience in presentation. It enhance speaker confidence in the presentation and also useful to identify the interest of the audience. Position: Speakers position decides commanding of the presentation. It maintains your command and direction in your presentation.
Facial Expression: It is like that “tit for Tat”, means your facial expression decide response on your presentation. It maintains your positive attitude in your presentation. Practice in front mirror till you are satisfied with one. Posture: Posture is one more important task in your presentation. Stand confidently in the armed forces-head up, shoulders straight chest out, stomach in. Otherwise your audience feels that you are nervous and panic, so they would not take a more interest in your presentation. Hand gestures: Hand movement also play important role in presentation. Sometime fingers movement needed in activities or to showing some numerical data on the screen. Legs, feet, head should or combination of these also used in gestures. It is the animated way to communicate with the audience.
1.9 Making Eye Contact With Your Audience
It is a regular event to contact with audience. Making eye contact with your audience is difficult. It keeps your interest in your presentation because it finds response either positive or negative way. You presentation is only for audience & they need to be made a part of it. Lack of eye contact will show that you don’t like audience or you don’t interest to make them confident. This will have a negative impact on your presentation. Making eye contact is required good bonding and strong connection with the audience (see Fig C4) otherwise you get negative response with that your presentation will fail. Following are the ways to reach out with your eyes & give the attention those audience deservers.
• Scan the wall: Scanning the wall is the bad habit because audience believes that you are looking at them. They wondering with why you are looking at back wall, some of them thinking that you are interested in to see the wall only. Its better way to make eye contact with audience for the bonding relationship.
• Make friends: In some situation your presentation should be friendly. Select 3-4 participants from the audience and make friend them. They will help you to made connection with audience. Make a eye contact during the presentation with them. It makes comfortable presentation in the room.
• Divide and rule: Sometime you need the strategy like divide and rule. Divide your audience in equally and it depends on the quality and quantity of the audience. You can divide it as interested or not interested. You can also divide your audience in position of the room or seating arrangement wise.
• Positive response: Find the positive responded audience and take a extra effort on them. During the presentation some are smiling or nodding head in agreement. You seriously look at them and make eye contact with them. It will boost your presentation to be continued. Response is must either positive or negative. Your body language decides response of your presentation.
• How long? : Eye contact with audience is a better way to maintain your confidence in presentation. But is require the duration otherwise audience feel that you have nothing to say and you are nervous. Eye contact should not be more than 2 to 3 seconds.
• Call audience by name: Make eye contact with audience and call them name before that remember the participant name. Ask question them either they will give answer or not, but it will to increase their confidence to maintain in your presentation. Eye contact is a good way to building relationship with audience. It will help to continue your presentation.
1.10 Overcoming Your Fear of Presenting Presentation is a group of people is not easy when you are doing it first time, fear is looking foolish. Then how to overcome the fear? You should take care about the preparation of the presentation, confidence of the body language and positive attitude towards the audience response.
1.10.1 First time presentation experienced following reaction
• Heart beating
• Mouth becomes dry
• Feeling blank
1.10.2 The following reactions happened when person start talking
• Heart keeps beating loud
• Not able to hear your own voice
• Some people talk very fast and loud
• Some people secure and stumble
1.10.3 Controlling this fear with the help of following points:
• Understand the situation and control on it. or
• Some people wind up a presentation & the session turns out to be a flop.
1.10.4 Reasons behind the fear as following
• Crowd in the room.
• Audience with peers
• Audience who know more about the topic
• No answer on question asked by the audience
• Going without preparation and lack of presentation skills
• Going blank and taking a Burdon about the audience.
• Unfamiliar with equipment in the room
1.10.5 How do we overcome this fear?
The following are the main points to overcome fear.
1.10.6 Prepared well
• Preparation required for the presentation because it contains the rehearsal, gesture and posture. It is helpful to do plan and its execution of your presentation. It also ensure every details about the presentation i.e. equipment, notes, podium etc. To take care about all these point during the presentation.
• Keep your material ready to present or you can distribute it in the audience. It will helpful to present your presentation in easy way. Make an outline of your presentations main points and keep your explanation ready don’t memorize it otherwise it will fail your presentation.
• Know your audience and make a proper plan as per audience requirement and it gives the outline for the presentation. Without knowing audience you can proceed toward the presentation.
• Check out the equipment’s which are using in presentation. Not only check the use of equipment but also process of equipment.
1.10.7 Practice before session
• Practice makes man perfect. Practice well on your presentation and it will give more and more trick and tips regarding presentation. With that it will build your logic and able to work out on plan.
• Note down all the points used in PowerPoint during the practice. It will help your to deliver your presentation in easy way and embed the contents in your memory.
• Use some ideas to practice on your presentation. It will useful to focus on your body language, confidence, posture and gesture. Also it required good eye contact. It increases your concentration power in your real presentation.
• Use video record or audio recorder to record your practice session so that can be helpful to identify the mistake during the presentation with you can eliminate in real presentation. It maintains your order and plan, pauses for the real presentation. Ask to your friend or expert to checking your recording, they will help you to guide on your drawback. It improves your confidence and presentation skills.
1.10.8 Additional material keeps ready
• You must keep ready your backup to face the all types of situations. It gives the more confidence to taking care of failure that might occur in your presentation. It makes you to familiar with all unlike subject presentation.
• You should have the entire backup for the all equipment and also check are they working or not. It makes your relaxed and your confidence will go on high.
• Keep backup for the main points with notes. It also include all statement explanation so you can refer it when need of the more details.
• It is the good way to overcome with lack of confidence and then don’t worry about the forgetting some points. Because you have all backup of the all material which is used by you in your presentation.
1.10.9 Avoid Burdon of the audience
• Sometime you are present your presentation to your senior person, so the burden is must. You a working with them, you have burden of seniority. Keep in mind that you are expert in that and don’t fear about the presentation.
• Know your audience it given the good support to present your ideas. When you knew the audience then you can easily make presentation and also present it too. Audience is from various categories, location and types. Visualize then as per situation and present yourself as per visualization. It can be good for the overcoming your fear of the audience.
• Your body language should be positive way so that can be reflected in your speech and it becomes energetic. It is key success of your presentation to present yourself with good body language.
• Make friendly relation with audience, this will encourage you to do it will.
• Take care of the queries asked by audience, firstly work on it and solve it seriously. Because audience is an important element in your presentation. Make eye contact during the queries solving and check their positive response.
• The audience fear about the presentation because they also searching the meaningful output. Share some experience about the presentations, that can be helpful to audience to maintain their interest in your presentation and comfortable about their output.
1.10.10 Relax before speaking
• Introduction about the topic and speaker should be with smile and confident.
• Take a breath to relax before going to presentation.
• Before talking on presentation first thank of the person who invited you to speak.
• Start your presentation to counting 10 to 1.
• Announce that audience carefully listens to you.
• All above task showing that you are controlling the presentation.
• Do not lean or rest against stand, it starts your downfall.
• You should relax before presentation.
• Evaluation is must because it tests you after the any task. It gives the correct observation the understanding level of audience and also shows the presentation feedback. You can create the checklist as given follow to finding observation of your presentation. You can evaluate yourself because it needs to improve your performance better and better.
1.11 Planning Breaks During Presentation. A presentation must require break other audience will get tired and bored. It need not only for audience but also speaker. A good presentation will include proper break management. It will enhance the impact of the presentation and help to keeping attention and interest. Finally it provides a period of relaxation to the audience and speaker.
1.11.1 Breaks needed in following condition
• Time for relax to the speaker and audience
• Audience required time to keep presentations main point in their mind
• Adding some effect or activities to the presentation.
• Audience need break to focus on the presentation for long time.
• To check equipment are working properly or not.
• Time to speaker to thinking on what next?
There is a one main important rule that in full day presentation, break required after every hour. But there is one problem in this type of breaking, sometime main points explanation needed more than one hour. So the break must be after finish the main point’s explanation. You should announce the break time i.e. commencing the break time and ending the break time. You can professional language to announce the break time. You should have plan of each break with its duration and cause. Some breaks have short time and some break for the long time like lunch break. You can announce the break for the solving activities also. Keep in mind that your explanation should not be more than 1 hours it need break time otherwise it disturb your presentation. Audience could be able to maintain their interest in your presentation. You should announce the return time of the break; it allows you to establish a psychological pressure on the audience to return on time.
1.12 Presenting to Different Types of Audiences There are different types of audience; you must have knowledge to face the various types of audience. You can categorize under different types based on common needs. So you can communicate effectively with the various categorize.
• Manager: These types of peoples are senior, required accurate data and figures. You need to take an effective approach in your presentation and will be a formal sessions. A presentation should be indicate that perfection data flowing.
• Colleague: These audience means they are colleagues or your level people, with you can communicate normally and friendly. It should mutual respect and sharing of learning and experiences. Their involvement should be interactive with sharing some opinions, experience and feedback.
• Team: It is the whole circle of your group, so all members are important in all work doing by team. All audience should be feel that you are the part of the team, you contribution also in the groups success or failure.
• Special Interest Group: In all types of presentation some people are special interest in presentation. So the know about this types of group, communicate them with understand their problem. A bond is created and audience will think that you are one of them.
• Different subject group: Some time there various different subject people. You should observe the various group involved in your presentation and identify the main sub group and focus your presentation on them. You should ensure that the other sub groups are also involved. Finally you need to know the various types of audience and analyses their preparation for the presentation with their requirement. Focus that all point involvement in your presentation about these audience. Fig. c13 display a presentation constitution a set of audience.
1.13 Tips for Keeping Your Presentation Interesting It is necessary to keep your audience with their focus in your presentation. You should feel the experience for them about your presentation. The following are some tips for hold up your audience in your presentation.
• Graphics: There is need to explain your presentation in minimum word and maximum graphics. A graphic tell us the more information about the presentation at low space. Use good color combination, graphics, and handout to support your good presentation.
• Position: You should not remain at the podium, come out and use you room to present your presentation. Because when you mix in your audience it will increase your confidence.
• Eye contact: It is the most important communication way to find out the response of audience on your presentation.
• Focus: you should focus on your main points; your presentation must flow with the same way. Otherwise Audience feels that you are nervous and not ready to present your presentation.
• Gesture: You gesture should be in your own style and it should be professional not functional. With the help of if you can improve your message convey idea and confidence on the presentation.
• Speech: Your speech should be perfect and effective, do not read from your notes. You should prepare and create handout of your notes and distribute it in your audience before your presentation. It gives the good idea about your presentation. Explain all point in easy way and good communication method. You need to speak naturally on your points.
• Following are the point to maintain audience interest in your presentation
o Share your experience with effective examples.
o Keep the presentation short and simple.
o Ask questions timely and get the answers on it.
o Give them activates regarding your presentation
o Make a proper plan on your presentation.
o Know your audience with their requirements.