Type features are one of the most important and powerful aspects of Illustrator. A single line of a type can be added to the artwork to create columns and rows of text. Text can be flown into a shape or along a path and letterforms can be worked as graphic objects. This may include the fonts you select and the settings you choose for leading, kerning and spacing before and after paragraphs.
One of the three methods mentioned below can be used :
(i) Point type: is the point where you click and as you enter characters, it expands in a horizontal or vertical directions.
(ii) Area type: (also known as paragraph type) controls the flow of characters. It uses the boundaries of an object.
(iii) Type on a path: This flows along the edge of an open or a dosed path.
You can apply strokes and fill for types. You can use various methods to format characters and paragraphs. Paragraphs can be aligned and even hidden characters can be displayed. You have options to set tabs, define type styles and also can convert text to outlines.
After going through this unit, you will be able to:
• Incorporate text into your artwork

• Understand how to create text in your artwork
• Define how to transform text
• Learn to format text within your artwork
• Format paragraphs in your artwork
(i) Character sets and alternate glyphs
In addition to the characters of your keyboard, typefaces include many other characters. Depends on the selection of the font type, they may have options like fractions, ligatures, swashes, ornaments, titling and stylistic alternates, superior and inferior characters, ordinals, old-style figures and lining figures. A glyph is defined as a specific form of a character. For example, the capital letter A is available in several forms, in certain fonts such as swash and small cap.
There are two way by which you can insert alternate glyphs:
a. The Glyphs panel allows you to view and insert glyphs from any typeface.
b. The OpenType panel allows you set up rules for using glyphs, e.g., if you can specify titling characters, ligatures and fractions in a given text block, to the text. Using the OpenType panel ensures a more consistent result as it is easier than inserting one glyph at a time. However, the panel works only with OpenType fonts.
(ii) Glyphs panel overview
To view the glyphs in a font and to insert specific glyphs in your document, use the Glyphs panel (Window > Type > Glyphs).
For a currently selected font, the Glyphs panel displays all the glyphs. Fonts can be changed by selecting a different font family and style, the option is available at the bottom of the panel. Alternate characters can be displayed from the Show menu at the top of the panel. Characters can be selected in your document, by selecting Alternates for Current Selection.

When you select an OpenType font in the Glyphs panel, you can restrict the panel to display certain kinds of glyphs, that can be done by selecting a category from the Show menu. You will get a pop-up menu of alternate glyphs, by clicking the triangle in the lower right corner of the glyph box.

a. Insert or replace a character using the Glyphs panel
With the type tool, click to place the insertion point where you need to insert the character. Go to the Glyphs panel, and double-click the desired character. If you need to change a character, go to the Show pop-up menu and select Alternates For Current Selection.
b. Highlight alternate glyphs in the text
i. Select File > Document Setup.
ii. Select Highlight Substituted Glyphs and click OK. In the text, substituted glyphs are highlighted.
(iii) OpenType panel overview
With the help of the OpenType panel (Window > Type > OpenType), you can specify the various methods to apply alternate characters in OpenType fonts . For example, in new or existing text, you can specify the intention to use standard ligatures.
You should remember, that all options are not available in the OpenType panel for every font type. This is because OpenType fonts offers their own kinds of features. Using the Glyphs panel you will find the characters in a font.

The above figure displays: A. Standard Ligatures, B. Contextua lAlternates, C. Discretionary Ligatures, D. Swash, E. Stylistic Alternates, F. Titling Alternates, G. Ordinals, H. Fractions, 1. Panel menu, J. Figure Type and K. Character Position.
In the top right corner of the panel, you can access additional commands and options from the OpenType panel menu.
a. Use ligatures and contextual alternates
Ligatures are defined as typographic replacement characters for some letter pairs. For standard letter pairs such as fi,fl,ff,ffi and ffl, most fonts include ligatures. Moreover, for letter pairs such as, ct, st and ft, some fonts include discretionary ligatures. You can edit the characters in ligatures and do not cause the spell checker to flag a word erroneously, though they appear to be joined. Contextual Alternates which are Alternate characters are included in some script typeface to avail better joining behavior. For instance: the letter pair 131′ in the word ‘bloom’ is joined so that it looks like handwriting, when using Caflisch Script Pro with contextual alternates enabled.
If the characters or Type objects are already present then you need to select the characters or type objects first before applying the settings. As if the characters or Type object are not selected in prior then the settings will be applied to the new text you create. Make sure that to select an OpenType font. Perform any of the following steps in the OpenType panel:
i. To enable or disable ligatures for standard letter pairs such as, 5, fl, ff, ffi and ft], click the Standard Ligatures button.
ii. To enable or disable optional ligatures, if available in the current font, click the Discretionary Ligatures button.
iii. To enable or disable contextual alternates, if available in the current font, click the Contextual Alternates button.

b. Use swashes, titling alternates or stylistic alternates
You can add decorative elements to type, there are various stylized characters available in OpenType fonts. Swashes are defined as characters with exaggerated flourishes. Titling alternates are defined as characters (usually all in capitals) that are designed to use in large settings such as titles. Stylistic alternates are defined as the stylized characters to create a purely esthetic effect.
Select the characters or type objects before you apply the setting. If no text is selected, then the setting will apply to any new text that you create. Be sure to select an OpenType font. Perform one of the following in the OpenType panel:
i. Click Swash button to enable or disable swash characters (if available in the current font).
ii. To enable or disable stylistic alternates, if available in the current font, click the Stylistic Alternates button.
iii. To enable or disable titling alternates, if available in the current font, click the Titling Alternates button.

The outline of any path or an object is known as a stroke. A stroke can be thick, colored or dashed. The color or gradient applied to the interior area of any open or closed path (or stroke) is known as a fill. The attributes of the stroke and fill of any created path or shape can be changed at any stage.
The Character panel allows to edit the character, but you need to select them first before applying the settings. You can also apply fill and stroke attributes and control the opacity of the characters. In a type object these changes can be applied to one character, a range of characters or all characters. Characters are highlighted in the document window when they are selected. In the word ‘Characters’ appears the Appearance pane.
If you select a type path, you can adjust its shape and also apply fill and stroke attributes to it. This selection is not possible for point type. The word `Path’ appears in the Appearance panel after a type path is selected.

(i) Select characters
Follow one of the below steps, after selecting any type tool:
a. Drag the type tool to select one or more characters. You can use Shift-drag to extend or reduce the selection.
b. If you need to select a particular word the, place the pointer on a word and double-click.
c. Place the pointer in a paragraph and click thrice to select the entire paragraph.
d. To select all the characters in the type object, select one or more characters and then go to Select menu > All.
(ii) Select type objects
If you select a type object, then global formatting options can be applied to all the characters within that object. These include options from the Character and Paragraph panels, fill and stroke attributes and transparency settings. Even you can create effects, apply multiple fills and strokes and set the opacity masks to a selected type object. You can not apply the above settings to a single character. A bounding box appears around the type object in the document window when it is selected and the word Type' appears in the Appearance panel. Follow any one of the below: a. Click the type with the Selection tool or the Direct Selection tool in the document window. To select additional type objects, press Shift-click. b. Select the desired type object and then in the Layers panel, click on its right edge. To add or remove objects to the existing selection, Shift-click at the right edge of the items in the Layers panel. c. Go to Select menu > Object > Text Objects to select all type objects within a document. (iii) Select a type path If you select a type path, you can adjust its shape and also apply fill and stroke attributes to it. Point type does not allow such level of selection. The wordPath’ appears in the Appearance panel after a type path is selected.
You can easily select a type path, when Outline view is activated. Choose the Direct Selection tool or the Group Selection tool. Click the type path, avoid the select of the characters. If a character is clicked by mistake, a type object will get selected instead of the type path.
(iv) Find and replace text
Go to Edit menu > Find and Replace. Enter the text string to be search and also enter the text with which to replace it.

The Find and Replace With options avails to choose a variety of special characters, you can find them at the pop-up menus to the right of the panel. Select any of the following options to customize searches for the specified text string:
a. Match Case: Only those text strings are searched that exactly match the uppercase or lowercase text in the Find box.
b. Find Whole Word: Only entire words are searched that match the text in the Find box.
c. Search Backwards: The file is searched from the bottom to the top of the stacking order.
d. Check Hidden Layers: The text will searched in hidden layers. The text in hidden layers will be ignored if this option is deselected.
e. Check Locked Layers: The text will be searched in locked layers. Illustrator ignores the text in locked layers if this option is deselected. To begin the search, click Find.
Then, perform any one of the following:
a. To replace the text string, click Replace and then click Find Next to find the next instance.
b. To replace the text string and find the next instance, click Replace and Find.
c. To replace all instances of the text string in the document, click Replace All.
d. To close the dialog box, click Done.
When the Find And Replace dialog box is closed, to find the next instance of a text string, go to Edit menu> Find Next.
(v) Change the color and appearance of characters
Illustrator allows to change the color and appearance of type objects by applying fills, strokes, transparency settings, effects and graphic styles. If the text is converted into Raster object, then you can not edit.
Perform one of the following steps:
a. Select the characters to change the appearance of specific characters in a type object.
b. Select the type object to change the appearance of all characters or to apply multiple fills and strokes in a type object.
c. Select the type path to fill or stroke a type path.
Illustrator overwrites the attributes of individual characters in the type object when you change the color of a type object.

To quickly change the color of selected type, use the Control panel.
(vi) Character panel overview
You can use the Character panel (Window > Type > Character) to apply options for formatting individual characters in your documents, . You can also use options in the Control panel to format characters when type is selected or when the Type tool is active.

(vii) Underline or strike through text
Select the typeto underline or strike. The setting applies to any new text you create, if you do not select any text.
Perform one of the below steps:
a. Click the Underline button in the Character panel to underline type.

b. Click the Strikethrough button in the Character panel to strike through type.
The size of the type decides the default weight of an underline and strikethrough.
(viii) Apply all caps and small caps
To format text as small caps, Illustrator automatically uses the small-caps characters designed as part of the font. Or else, the small caps using scaled-down versions of the regular capital letters are synthesized by the Illustrator.

Select the characters or type objects to change. The setting applies to any new text that you create if you do not select any text. From the Character panel menu select All Caps or Small Caps.
Go to File menu > Document Setup, to specify the size for synthesized small caps. Specify the percentage of the original font size for small caps. The default value is 70 per cent.
Go to Type menu > Change Case to change the capitalization style of the text to uppercase, lowercase, title case or sentence case.
(ix) Change capitalization styles
Select the characters or type objects which you intend to change. Go to Type menu > Change Case submenu, select one of the following:
a. Upper case: To convert all characters to uppercase.
b. Lower case: To convert all characters to lowercase.
c. Title case: To capitalize the first letter of every word.
d. Sentence case: To capitalize the first letter of each sentence.

(x) Specify curly or straight quotes
Curly quotes which are often referred to as typographer’s quotes, blend in with the curves of the font. These typographer’s quotes are generally used for quotation marks and apostrophes. While writing the abbreviations for feet and inches, straight quotes are used.
Go to File menu > Document Setup. Perform any one of the steps given below:
a. Deselect the option Use Typographer’s Quotes, to use straight quotes.
b. Select Use Typographer’s Quotes, to use typographer’s quotes. Select the desired language to set quotes and then select options for Double Quotes and Single Quotes.
Note: Quote options can be set for multiple languages. Based on the language you assign using the Character panel or Default Language preference, these quotes are applied to test. To replace straight quotes with typographer’s quotes, you can use the Smart Punctuation command.
(xi) Set anti-aliasing options for type
If any artwork is saved in a bitmap format such as GIF, JPEG or PNG, all objects will automatically rasterized at 72 pixels per inch by Illustrator and anti-aliasing is applied to them. You may not get the desired result of the default anti-aliasing settings, if your artwork contains type. Several options are available specifically for rasterizing type. You must rasterize type objects before you save the artwork. After selecting the type object, perform any one of the following:
a. Go to Object menu > Rasterize, to permanently rasterize the type.
b. To create the appearance of rasterization without changing the object’s underlying structure, choose Effect > Rasterize.
Select an anti-aliasing option from the following:
a. None: No anti-aliasing applies and the hard edges of type are maintained when it is rasterized.
b. Art Optimized (Super sampling): This is the default option in which all specified resolution objects are rasterized and Anti-aliasing is applied to them. The default resolution is 300 ppi (pixels per inch).
c. Type Optimized (Hinted): This option applies anti-aliasing that is best suited to type. The type gets a smoother on-screen appearance as anti-abasing reduces the appearance of jagged edges in the rasterized image. Though, sometime, you may find the text to read difficult, when this option is activated.
d. Creating superscripts or subscripts: Superscript and subscript text are also known as superior and inferior text. These are defined as the `reduced-size’ text that is raised or lowered with respect to a font’s baseline. A predefined baseline shift value and typeface size will be applied, when superscript or subscript type is created. The values applied are based on settings in the Type section of the Document Setup dialog box. These are percentages of the current font size and leading.

e. Create superscripts or subscripts in regular fonts: First, select the text. If no type or text is selected, then the new text you create will be rendered as superscripts or subscripts. Click on the Superscript or Subscript option in the Character panel menu.
f. Create superscripts or subscripts in OpenType fonts: Select the characters to convert to superscript or subscript. Select an OpenType font ( to check the type go to Type menu > Font menu). Select an option from the Position pop-up menu in the OpenType panel:
i. Default Position: This option uses the default position for the current font.
ii. Superscript/Superior: This option uses raised characters (if available in the current font).
iii. Subscript/Inferior: This option uses lowered characters (if available in the current font).
iv. Numerator: This option uses characters designed as fraction numerators (if available in the current font).
v. Denominator: This option uses characters designed as fraction denominators (if available in the current font).
g. Change the size and position of superscripts or subscripts: Specify the following values for superscript and subscript. Go to File menu < Document Setup. Click OK.
i. To resize, specify a percentage value of the font size for superscripted and subscripted text.
ii. To define position, type a percentage value to specify how much the superscript and subscript text will move.

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