FORMAT PARAGRAPHS

FORMAT PARAGRAPHS

You can format the columns and paragraphs, by using the Paragraph panel (Window menu > Type > Paragraph). Options in the Control panel is another way to format paragraphs, when type is selected or when the Type tool is active.

In the Paragraph panel, by default, you will find only the most commonly-used options. Select Show Options from the panel menu to show all options. Else, to cycle through the display sizes, click the double triangle on the panel’s tab.

(i) Justify text
Justify is when text is aligned with both edges. All text in a paragraph, either including or excluding the last line can be Justified. Insert the cursor in the paragraph or select the type object. Click the Justification button in the Paragraph panel. If you have not type object is selected or no cursor is inserted in the paragraph, the justification setting will apply to the new text you create.
(ii) Adjust word and letter spacing in justified text
Spaces letters, words and scale characters, can be precisely control in Adobe Illustrator.Although you can also adjust spacing for unjustified type, but adjusting spacing is more easier with justified type. Select a type object or frame to change all of its paragraphs, or insert the cursor in the paragraph. From the Paragraph panel menu, select Justification. Specify values for Letter Spacing, Word Spacing and Glyph Spacing. For justified paragraphs only, the minimum and maximum values define a range of acceptable spacing. For both justified and unjustified paragraphs, the desired value defines the desired spacing.
Word Spacing: The Word Spacing is defined as the space between words that results from pressing the spacebar. You can set the values between 0 to 1000 per cent. No additional space can be added between words at 100 per cent.

Letter Spacing: Letter Spacing is defined as the distance between letters, including kerning or tracking values. You can set the values between 100 to 500 per cent. If 0 values is specified then no space will be added. An entire space width can be added between letters at 100 per cent.
Glyph Scaling: Glyph Scaling is defined as the width of characters (a glyph is defined as any font character). The range of Glyph Spacing values lie between 50 and 200 per cent.
Spacing options are always applicable to whole paragraphs. To adjust the spacing for a few characters not an entire paragraph, The Tracking option can be used. Set the Single Word Justification option to justify single-word paragraphs.
A single word can occasionally appear by itself on a line, within narrow columns. A single word on a line may appear to be too stretched out if the paragraph is set to full justification. You can center these words or align them to the left or to the right, instead of leaving them fully justified.
(iii) Indent text
The space between a type object and the text is known as Indention. Indents can be set using the Control panel, the Tabs panel or the Paragraph panel. It can be controlled by changing the inset spacing for the type object or by using tabs when working with area type. You can easily set different indentions for different paragraphs as indention affects only the selected paragraph or paragraphs.
(iv) Set indents using the Paragraph panel
Click the paragraph you need to indent using the Type tool. In the Paragraph panel adjust the appropriate indent values. For instance:
a. Type a value (such as 3p) in the left indent box to indent the entire paragraph by three pica.
b. Type a value (such as 3p) in the first line left indent box to indent only the first line of a paragraph by three pica.
c. Specify a positive value (such as 1p) in the left indent box and specify a negative value (such as -1p) in the first line left indent box. This will create a hanging indent of one pica.
(v) Set an Indent using the Tabs panel
Click on the paragraph you need to indent, using the Type tool. In the Tabs panel execute any one of the below steps, to the indent markers (see Figure 7.9):
a. To indent the first line of text, drag the top marker. To indent all but the first line, drag the bottom marker. To move both markers and indent the entire paragraph, press Ctrl key and drag (Windows) or Command-drag (Mac OS) the bottom marker.

b. To indent the first line of the text, select the top marker and type a value for X. To move all but the first sentence, select the bottom marker and type a value for X.
(vi) Create a hanging indent
In a hanging indent, except for the first line, all the lines in a paragraph are indented. When you need to add inline graphics at the beginning of the paragraph or to create a bulleted list, hanging indents are especially useful.

Click on the paragraph using the Type tool. Specify a left indent value greater than zero in the Control panel or the Tabs panel. Perform one of the following steps to specify a negative First-Line Left Indent value:
a. Type a negative value for the First-Line Left Indent in the Paragraph panel.
b. Move the top marker to the left or the bottom marker to the right in the Tabs panel.
(vii) Adjust paragraph spacing
Select a type object to change all paragraphs or insert the cursor in the paragraph you need to change. If you do not select a type object or do not insert the cursor in a paragraph, the setting applies to the new text you create. Adjust the values for Space Before (or) and Space After (or) in the Paragraph panel.

(viii) Hanging punctuation
By moving punctuation marks outside the paragraph margins, hanging punctuation makes edges of the text appear more even.

For hanging punctuation, Illustrator avails the following options: —
a. Roman Hanging Punctuation: For a particular paragraph, with the help of this option, you can control the alignment of punctuation marks. If the Roman Hanging Punctuation option is turned on, the following listed characters appear completely outside the margins: hyphens, periods, single quotes, double quotes and commas. Similarly, the following listed characters appear 50 per cent outside the margins: ellipses, asterisks, tildes, colons, semicolons, en dashes and em dashes.
To apply this setting, first insert the cursor in the paragraph and thereafter from the Paragraph panl menu, select Roman Hanging Punctuation.
b. Optical Margin Alignment: For all paragraphs within a type object, this option controls the alignment of punctuation marks. If the Optical Margin Alignment option is turned on, the edges of letters (such as W and A) as well as roman punctuation marks will hang outside the text margins. In this way, the type will look aligned. Select, the type object and go to Type menu > Optical Margin Alignment.
c. Punctuation option or Optical Margin Alignment option: It is always to remember that the margin from which the punctuation hangs is determined by the paragraph alignment. For right-aligned and left-aligned paragraphs, punctuation hangs off the right and left margins respectively. Similarly, for top-aligned and bottom-aligned paragraphs, punctuation hangs off the top and bottom margins respectively. Punctuation hangs off both margins for centered and justified paragraphs.

d. Hyphenation and line breaks: The horizontal spacing of lines and the aesthetic appeal of type on a page is affected by the settings you choose for hyphenation. Hyphenation of words and the breaks allowed is determined by the hyphenation options. For automatic hyphenation follow any of the steps:
i. Select or deselect the Hyphenate option in the Paragraph panel to switch automatic hyphenation on or off.
ii.Select only the paragraphs that you need to apply hyphenation.
iii. Choose a language from the Language menu at the bottom of the Character panel to choose a hyphenation dictionary.
After execution of one of the steps given above, click on Hyphenation option from the Paragraph panel menu and specify the following options:
Words Longer Than Letters: This option specifies the minimum number of characters required for words to be hyphenated.
After the First Letters And Before Last Letters: This option specifies the minimum number of characters required at the beginning or end of a word, such that it can be broken by a hyphen. For example, by specifying 3 for these values, the word ‘computer’ would be hyphenated as computer instead of computer or computer.
Hyphen Limit: This option specifies the maximum number of consecutive lines on which hyphenation may occur. A figure zero means that unlimited consecutive hyphens are allowed at the end of lines.
Hyphenation Zone: A distance from the right edge of a paragraph is specified by this option. It earmarks a portion of the line where hyphenation is not allowed. The figure zero allows all hyphenation. If you use the Adobe Single-line Composer, only then this option applies.
Hyphenate Capitalized Words: This option is selected to prevent capitalized words from being hyphenated.
(ix) Use the hyphenation dictionary
Proximity language dictionaries is used to determine when to hyphenate words. You can specify a different language, with the help of these dictionaries, even for a single character of text. After selecting a default dictionary, you can customize the dictionary in the Preferences dialog box.
Go to Edit menu > Preferences > Hyphenation (Windows) or Illustrator > Preferences > Hyphenation (Mac OS). Then, perform any of the following steps:
a. Select an option for Default Language to choose a default hyphenation dictionary and click

d. Hyphenation and line breaks: The horizontal spacing of lines and the aesthetic appeal of type on a page is affected by the settings you choose for hyphenation. Hyphenation of words and the breaks allowed is determined by the hyphenation options. For automatic hyphenation follow any of the steps:
i. Select or deselect the Hyphenate option in the Paragraph panel to switch automatic hyphenation on or off.
ii.Select only the paragraphs that you need to apply hyphenation.
iii. Choose a language from the Language menu at the bottom of the Character panel to choose a hyphenation dictionary.
After execution of one of the steps given above, click on Hyphenation option from the Paragraph panel menu and specify the following options:
Words Longer Than Letters: This option specifies the minimum number of characters required for words to be hyphenated.
After the First Letters And Before Last Letters: This option specifies the minimum number of characters required at the beginning or end of a word, such that it can be broken by a hyphen. For example, by specifying 3 for these values, the word ‘computer’ would be hyphenated as computer instead of computer or computer.
Hyphen Limit: This option specifies the maximum number of consecutive lines on which hyphenation may occur. A figure zero means that unlimited consecutive hyphens are allowed at the end of lines.
Hyphenation Zone: A distance from the right edge of a paragraph is specified by this option. It earmarks a portion of the line where hyphenation is not allowed. The figure zero allows all hyphenation. If you use the Adobe Single-line Composer, only then this option applies.
Hyphenate Capitalized Words: This option is selected to prevent capitalized words from being hyphenated.
(ix) Use the hyphenation dictionary
Proximity language dictionaries is used to determine when to hyphenate words. You can specify a different language, with the help of these dictionaries, even for a single character of text. After selecting a default dictionary, you can customize the dictionary in the Preferences dialog box.
Go to Edit menu > Preferences > Hyphenation (Windows) or Illustrator > Preferences > Hyphenation (Mac OS). Then, perform any of the following steps:
a. Select an option for Default Language to choose a default hyphenation dictionary and click OK.

b. Type the word in the New Entry box to add a word to the exceptions list and click Add.
c. Select the word to remove a word from the exceptions list and click Delete.
(x) Prevent words from breaking
Some words such as names or the words that could be misread, when we use hyphenation, this can be prevented from breaking at the end of lines. You can also keep groups of words or multiple words together, e.g., clusters of initials and a last name. For this, you need to select the characters you intend to prevent from breaking. Then, from the Character panel menu, select No Break.
Note: If the No Break option is applied to too many adjacent characters, the text may get wrapped in the middle of a word. However, none of the text will appear if you apply the No Break option to more than a single line of text.
(xi) Composition methods
A complex interaction of processes called a composition has a direct impact on the appearance of type on the page. Adobe Illustrator evaluates possible line breaks and chooses the one that best supports the specified parameters using word spacing, letter spacing and glyph spacing and hyphenation options.
Any one of the two composition methods can be chosen within Adobe Every-line Composer and Adobe Single-line Composer. In both methods possible breaks are evaluated and the one that best supports the hyphenation and justification options is chosen. You can easily set different composition methods for different paragraphs as the composition method affects only the selected paragraph or paragraphs.
(xii) Every-line Composer
In order to eliminate unattractive breaks later, the Every-line Composer considers a network of break points for a range of lines. It can optimize earlier lines in the paragraph by identifying possible break points and evaluating them. Every-line Composer approaches the composition and based on the following principles it assigns a weighted penalty:
a. Lines that fall closer to the right side for left right- or center-aligned text are favored and have a lower penalty.
b. The highest importance for justified text is given to evenness of letter and word spacing.
c. When possible hyphenation is avoided.
(xiii) Single-line Composer
A traditional approach to compose one line at a time is offered by the Single-line composer. This feature is very useful when you need to perform it manually. While considering a breakpoint, the Single-line Composer uses the following principles:

a. Longer lines are to be favored over shorter lines.
b. Compressed or expanded word spacing is preferable to hyphenation in justified text.
c. Hyphenation is preferable to compressed or expanded letter spacing in non-justified text.
d. Compression is better than expansion if spacing must be adjusted. Select one of these methods from the Paragraph panel menu if you intend to use every-line or single-line composer. Select the type object to apply the method to all paragraphs. Insert the cursor in the paragraph to apply the method to the current paragraph only.
(xiv) Character and paragraph styles
A character style is defined as a collection of (character) formatting attributes that can be applied to a selected range of text. Both character and paragraph formatting attributes are included in a paragraph style, which can be applied to a selected paragraph or a range of paragraphs. To save time and to ensure consistent formatting, you can use character and paragraph styles.
To create, apply and manage character and paragraph styles, use the Character Styles and Paragraph Styles panels. Select text and click a style name in one of the panels to apply a style. If no text is selected then the style applies to the new text you create.

A. Style name B. Style with additional formatting (overrides) C. Panel menu D. New Style button E. Delete icon
The active styles are always highlighted in the Character Styles and Paragraph Styles panels, whenever you select text or insert the cursor in the text. By default, every paragraph is assigned the Normal Paragraph Style and every character in a document is assigned the Normal Character Style. For all other styles that you create, these default styles are the building blocks.
Next to a style name, a plus sign indicates that there are overrides to the style. An override is defined as any formatting that does not match the attributes, as defined by the style. You end up creating an override to the current character style whenever you change settings in the Character and OpenType panel. Likewise, you can create an override for the current paragraph style by changing settings in the Paragraph panel.

(xv) Create character or paragraph styles
Select the text if you intend formatting. Follow one of the below steps in the Character Styles panel or the Paragraph Styles panel:
a. Click the Create New Style button to create a style with the default name.
b. Choose New Style in the panel menu to create a style with a custom name.
c. Type a name and then click OK.
d. Drag the style onto the New Style button to create a copy of a character or paragraph style.
(xvi) Edit character or paragraph styles
The definition of default character and paragraph styles can be changed. The same applies to any new style that you create. All of the text formatted with the style changes to match the new style definition whenever you change the definition of a style. Perform one of the following steps in the Character Styles panel or the Paragraph Styles panel:
a. Select the style from the Character Styles panel menu or choose Character Style Options. You can also choose Paragraph Style Options from the Paragraph Styles panel menu.
b. Double-click on the style name. Select a category of formatting options on the left side of the dialog box and set the options you intend. By selecting a different category you can switch to a different group of formatting options. Search for the Formatting Option Name in Help if you need more information about any of the formatting options.
Third, click OK to finish setting options.
(xvii) Remove style overrides
In the Character Styles panel or the Paragraph Styles panel, a plus sign next to the style name indicates that there are overrides to the style. An override is defined as any formatting that does not match the attributes, as defined by the style. To remove style overrides there are several ways:
a. To clear overrides and return text to the appearance defined by the style, choose Clear Overrides from the panel menu or reapply the same style.
b. Alt-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) the style name to clear overrides while applying a different style.
c. To maintain the current appearance of the text and to redefine the style, from the text select at least one character and from the panel menu choose the Redefine Style command.
d. Avoid overrides if you use styles to maintain a consistent formatting pattern. These overrides pose no problem if you are formatting quickly.

(xviii)MID Delete character or paragraph styles
The appearance of paragraphs tagged with the style does not change whenever you delete styles, but their formatting is no longer associated with a style. In the Character Styles panel or the Paragraph Styles panel, select the style name or names. Then perform one of the following steps:
a. From the panel menu select Delete Character Style or Delete Paragraph Style.
b. At the bottom of the panel click the Delete icon.
c. At the bottom of the panel drag the style to the Delete icon.
d. Choose Select All Unused from the panel menu to delete all unused styles
e. Click the Delete icon.
(xix) Load character and paragraph styles from another
Illustrator document Perform any one of the following steps in the Character Styles panel or the Paragraph Styles panel:
a. From the panel menu select Load Character Styles or Load Paragraph Styles.
b. To load both character and paragraph styles, choose Load All Styles from the panel menu.
c. Double-click on the Illustrator document that contains the styles you intend to import.
7.4.1 Importing Text
Text from any file that was created in another application can be imported into your artwork. You can import text in the following formats:
• Microsoft Word for Windows 97, 98, 2000, 2002, 2003 and 2007
• RTF (Rich Text Format)
• Microsoft Word for Mac OS X, 2004 and 2008
• Plain text (ASCII) with ANSI, Unicode, Shift JIS, GB2312, Greek, Turkish, Baltic, Chinese Big 5, Cyrillic, GB18030 and Central European encoding
Rather than copying and pasting it, one advantage of importing text from a file is that its character and paragraph formatting will be maintained in imported text. For example, font and style specifications of the text from an RTF file are retained in Illustrator. You can also set encoding and formatting options while importing text from a plain text file.

(i) Import text into a new file First,
Go to File menu > Open. Select the text file you intend to open. Click Open.
(ii) Import text into an existing file
Go to File menu > Place. Click Place after selecting the text file you intend to import. If you intend to place plain text (.txt) in a file, perform the following steps and click OK
a. Define the platform and the character set that were used to create the file.
b. To determine how Illustrator processes extra carriage returns in the file, select the Extra Carriage Returns option.
c. To replace strings of spaces in the file with tabs, select the Extra Spaces option. You will be required to enter the number of spaces.
7.4.2 Creating Text
Enter text at a point
Point type begins where you click and expands as you enter characters. It is arranged as a horizontal or vertical line of text. Each line of text created is independent. The line does not wrap to the next line but expands or shrinks as you edit it. For adding a few words to your artwork, entering text this way is useful. Choose the Type tool or the Vertical Type tool. Within a dotted box, the pointer converts to an I-beam. Near the bottom of the I-beam, a small horizontal line marks the position of the baseline, on which the text rests. In the Control panel, Character panel or Paragraph panel, set text-formatting options (Optional). Click where you need to begin the line of text.
Note: Since clicking an existing object converts the type object into area type or type on a path, be sure not to do that. Lock or hide the object if an existing object is located where you intend to enter text.
To begin a new line of text within the same type object, press Enter or Return. After finishing typing or entering text, Click the Selection tool to select the type object. Else, use the Ctrl-click (Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS) for the text.
Enter text in an area
To control the flow of characters, area type (also known as paragraph type) uses the boundaries of an object, either horizontally or vertically. The text automatically wraps to fit inside the defined area when it reaches a boundary. You will find this as a easier way when you need to create one or more paragraphs.

Specify the bounding area using one of the methods:

a. Selecting the Type tool or the Vertical Type tool, drag diagonally to define a rectangular bounding area.
b. Draw the object which you need to use as the bounding area. Illustrator automatically removes the object’s stroke or fill attributes. After selecting the Type tool, the Vertical Type tool, the Area Type tool, or the Vertical Area Type tool, click anywhere on the object’s path.

In the Control panel, Character panel or Paragraph panel, set the options for formatting text (Optional). Enter the text. To begin a new paragraph, press Enter or Return. Click the Selection tool to select the type object after you finish entering text. You can also Ctrl-click (Windows) or Commandclick (Mac OS) the text. A small box containing a plus symbol (+) appears near the bottom of the bounding area if you enter more text, than can fit within the area.

To display the overflow text you can resin the text area or extend the path. The text can be thread into another object.
Resize a text area
Use one of the below functions:
a. Using the Selection tool or Layers panel, select the type object and drag a handle on the bounding box.

b. With the Direct Selection tool, select the edge or corner of the type path. Drag, to adjust the shape of the path. When you are in Outline view, it is easiest to adjust the type path using the Direct Selection tool.
c. Using the Selection tool or Layers panel, select the type object and go to Type menu> Area Type. For specifying Width and Height, enter values and click OK. These values determine the dimensions of the object’s bounding box, if the text area is not a rectangle.


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