In Illustrator if you want to draw exactly the same way like drawing with a pencil on a paper, then you can use Pencil tool. It actually allows you to draw, open and close paths. This tool is very useful for creating figures which look as if they were drawn by hand as well as if you want to do sketching. Once you have drawn a path, you can immediately change it as if you require.
As soon as you drawn a path with the Pencil tool, Anchor points will automatically set. The settings in the Pencil Tool Preferences dialog box as well as length and complexity of the path defines the number of anchor points set down.the sensitivity of the Pencil tool is controls the tolerance settings , it takes reference of mouse movement or graphics-tablet styles.
You can use various styles like scatter, art, calligraphic and pattern brushes to add visual effects to your artwork. Moreover, Live Paint features can be used to fill enclosed paths with different colors and patterns or gradients and paint different path segments.In Illustrator, with the use options like opacity, blends, meshes, masks, gradients or patterns you can create whatever you want it all depends on your creative ideas.
After studying this unit, you will be able to:
• elaborate the procedure of drawing with the Pencil tool
• explain editing Anchor points with the Direct Selection tool• explain concepts of Caps and Joins
• elaborate process of assigning stroke or fill colours with the Eyedropper or Paint Bucket tool
• Discuss the procedure of drawing with the Brush tool

Following are the functions that we can perform with the Pencil tool:
(I) Draw freeform paths
Click on the Pencil tool and move the cursor to position the tool where you need to begin the path. Then start to drag it to draw a path. A small cross (x) will be displayed to indicate the procedure for drawing a freeform path. As the pointer is dragged, a dotted line follows it. Anchor points appear at both ends of the path and at various points along it. The path adopts the current ‘stroke and fill’ properties and by default it remains selected.
(ii) Draw closed paths
Click on the Pencil tool and move the cursor to position the tool where you need to begin the path. Then start to drag it to draw a path. After you have started dragging, press Alt key (Windows) or Option key (Mac OS). A small circle will appear (and in InDesign, a solid eraser) which indicates that you are creating a closed path. When you have created the desired shape of the path, release the mouse button but remember not to release the Alt/Option key. As soon as the path closes, release the Alt/Option key. In order to create a closed path, you need not to drag the cursor at the starting point of the path. Just release the mouse button on any location of the document, the Pencil tool will itself close the shape by selecting the shortest possible line, back to the original point.
(iii) Edit paths
With the help of Pencil tool you can edit any path. Even you can add freeform lines and shapes any shape.
(iv) Add to a path
Select the Pencil tool and click on an existing path. Move the pencil tip on one endpoint of the path.cursor over endpoint the small cross (x) next to the pencil tip disappears. Drag to continue the path.
(v) Connect two paths
Select both the paths and press shift+click or drag around the two with the Selection tool. Then select the Pencil tool. Move the pointer at the endpoint of one of the path and start dragging toward the other path. After you begin dragging, press down Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS) key.When you are adding to the existing path, the Pencil tool displays a small merge symbol. Finally, drag onto the endpoint of the other path, release the mouse button and then release the Ctrl or Command key.

Note: Drag from one path to the other in the same direction as they were created.
(vi) Reshape paths
Select the path that you need to modify. To redraw, move the Pencil tool over or near that path. When small cross (x) next to the pencil tip disappears that means you are close enough to the endpoint. Now drag the tool until the path gets desired shape.

Note: you may get unexpected results, it depends on the beginning point and in which direction you drag. For example, unintentionally, a closed path may be changed to an open path or an open path may bc changed to a closed path. A portion of the shape may also be lost.
(vii) Pencil tool options
When you double-click the Pencil tool it will activate any of the following options:
a. Fidelity: Before a new anchor point is added to the path, this option controls the distance the cursor needs to be moved. To make a less complex and smoother path increase the value. The lower the value, the more the curves matching the pointer’s movement. And this will results in sharper angles. The recommended range for fidelity should be from 0.5 to 20 pixels.
b. Smoothness: With the help of this option you can controls the smoothness. You can set from 0 to 100 value for the smoothness. The smoothness of the path is depend on the value, if the higher value is set, more smoothness will be applied. And if low value is set, there will be more more irregularities and anchor points presented.
c. Fill new pencil strokes: To use this option, you need to create the stoke after selecting this option. It will not fill the strokes that are already created.
d. Keep selected: This is a default option which helps to decide whether a path drawn is to be retained or deleted.
e. Edit selected paths: With the help of this option you can modify or merge the selected path.

f. Within pixels: You need to Select the Edit Selected Paths option before using this tool. This option helps in deciding the nearest distance between the cursor and an existing path that will enable the pencil tool to edit it.
With the help of Direct Selection tool, you can select segments of path or points, in between objects.

Follow one of the below steps to resize an individual object or path using the direct selection tool:
(i) Select the path or object by using the Direct Selection tool, then click the path or object again to edit it.
(ii)To switch the Live Paint Group into the isolation mode double-click on it by using the Selection tool. Then click a path or object to edit it.

A cap displays the end of an open line, whereas a join displays where a straight line changes direction or turns a corner. The caps and joins can be modified by changing the object’s stroke attributes. The below options described in detail:
(i) Select the object.

(ii) Select a cap option and a join option in the Stroke panel.
(iii) If you are not seeing the options select Show Options from the panel menu.
Caps and Joins are explained below:
a. Butt Cap
A Butt Cap creates stroked lines with squared ends.
b. Round Cap
Round Cap creates stroked lines with semicircular ends.
c. Projecting Cap
Projecting Cap has squared ends. These stroked lines extend about half the width of the line, beyond the end o f the line. It defines the width of the line extend equally in all directions around the line.
d. Miter Join
Miter Join creates stroked lines with pointed corners and enters a miter limit between 1 and 500. The miter limit helps when the program switches from a mitered or pointed join to a squared-off or a beveled join. A miter limit of 1 will create a bevel join and the default miter limit is 4. It signifies that the length of the point reaches four times the stroke weight.
e. Round Join
A Round Join creates stroked fines with rounded corners.
f. Bevel Join
A Bevel Join creates stroked line with squared corners.
Fills and Strokes
a color, pattern, or gradient within an object is known as a fill. You can apply fills to open or closed objects as well as to the Faces of Live Paint groups.
The outline of an object, path, or the edge of a Live Paint group is known as a stroke. You can modify the thickness (width) and color of the stroke. With the use of path options Dashed strokes can be created.By using brushes Paint stylized strokes can be created. While working with Live Paint groups, a brush can be applied to an edge only ifs stroke is added to the group using the Appearance panel.

(I) Fill and Stroke controls
To modify settings of the fill and stroke, we can use the Control panel and the Color panel from the Tools panel. The following controls of the Tools panel can be used to apply the desired color:
a. Fill button: With the Color Picker, double-click on the tool to select a fill color.
b. Stroke button: With the Color Picker, double-click on the tool to select a stroke color.
c. Swap Fill and Stroke button: It swaps the fill and stroke colors.
d. Gradient button: This option will apply gradient color and you can also change the gradient color with the desired one.
e. Color button: This option applies the last selected color on an object with a gradient fill or no stroke or fill.
f. None button: It will remove the selected object’s fill or stroke.
With the help of following controls from the Control panel you can also specify color and stroke:
a. Fill color: Click to the Swatches panel to select a color or Press Shift key and click Fill color button to open an alternate color mode panel.
b. Stroke panel: You can use this panel to specify Stroke options.
c. Stroke color: Click to the Swatches panel to select a color or Press Shift key and click on the button to open an alternate color mode panel.
d. Stroke weight: From the pop-up menu you can choose a weight for the stroke.

(ii) Using fills and strokes to paint Painting methods
In Illustrator you can these two methods of painting:
a. By assigning a fill, stroke (or both) you can convert the object to a Live Paint group.
b. To the edges and faces of paths, assigning fills or strokes separately.
(iii) Painting an object
After finishing the drawing of an object, a stroke, or fill (or both) can assigned to the object. You can apply the same method for drawing or painting and can be layered as new objects above the previous ones. The outcome will be like a collage, made by cutting shapes from a colored paper. The look of the artwork depends on the objects you have placed on top, in the stack of layered objects.
(iv) Painting a live paint group
Working with the Live Paint method will experience you just like working with a traditional coloring tool, without layers or stacking order. This is more natural way to work with. Each object in a Live Paint group is treated as if it constitutes the same flat surface. That means, several paths can be drawn and then each area can be enclosed by these paths and colored separately. This is blown as a face.
Edges are the various stroke, colors and weights that can be applied to a particular portions of a path between intersections. Therefore, particular face can be filled and a particular edge can be stroked with a different color, just like a coloring book. As the paths are moved and reshaped in a Live Paint group, the faces and edges get adjusted automatically.

In the above screenshot, an object having a single path has been painted using the existing method. It has a single fill and a single stroke (left). The same object is converted to a Live Paint group with a different fill for each face and a different stroke for each edge.

Painting an object the traditional way leaves some areas that cannot be filled (shown in the above figure). With the help of Painting a Live Paint group with gap detection, gaps and overprinting can be avoided.
(v) Apply a fill color to an object
You can apply color, gradient or pattern to an abject in two ways:
Single color, gradient, or pattern can be applied to an entire object by selecting the complete object and apply it, or
Live Paint groups can be used to apply different colors to different faces of the object.

(vi) Fill Color with the Eyedropper
Follow one of the below steps to select a fill color:
a. Select a color in one of the panels: Color, Swatches, Control, Gradient or a Swatch library.
b. Double-click the Fill box and choose a color from the Color Picker.
c. Click on the Eyedropper tool and press Alt and click (Windows), or press Option and Click (Mac OS). Select an object to apply the current attributes to including the current fill and stroke.
d. to remove the object’s current fill, click the None button. From the Fill box a color can be dragged and applied to an unselected object using the Gradient, Color, or Swatches panels. Dragging method will not work on Live Paint groups.

(vii) Stroke an object
A solid or dashed line of a stroke can be applied, by using the Stroke panel (Window > Stroke).

Stroke options can be applied to an entire object. With the use of Live Paint groups different strokes to different edges can also be applied within the object.
(viii) Apply a stroke color, width, or alignment
To apply a stroke color, width, or alignment, follow these steps:
a. Click on the object (Use the Live Paint Selection tool to select an edge in a Live Paint group.)
b. Select the Stroke box in the Tools panel, the Color panel, or the Control panel. This shows that you are applying a stroke not a fill.

c. Choose a color from the Color panel, or a swatch from the Swatches panel or Control panel. You can also double-clicked the Stroke box to select a color using the Color Picker. If you need to use

the current color in the Stroke box, color can be applied by dragging the color from the Stroke box onto the object. Dragging method will not work on Live Paint groups.
d. Select a weight you need from the Strokes panel or Control panel.
e. To align the stroke along the path, choose an option from the Stroke panel, In case of closed path (and not a Live Paint group). One of the below options can be used:
i. Align Stroke to Center
ii. Align Stroke to Inside
iii. Align Stroke to Outside
To make the edges to match exactly at the time of alignment, the path alignment settings should be the same.
Draw and Merge Paths with the Blob Brush Tool
To paint filled shapes that can be intersected and merged with other shapes of the same color, the Blob Brush tool is used.
The default options of the Blob Brush Tool are same as of calligraphic brushes.

(i) Blob brush tool guidelines
while working with the Blob Brush tool, below guidelines should be considered:
a. In order to merge paths, the path must be in adjacent stacks.
b. If you need to merge existing work with the Blob Brush Tool, you must ensure that the existing artwork has the same fill color and must have no stroke. The Paths created by the Blob Brush tool has the fill but does not have strokes on the shape.
c. Existing or new paths will be merge with the most matching path, while drawing paths with the Blob Brush tool. If more than one paths are matching and is very close to the new path within the same group or layer, then all intersecting paths will be merged together.

d. In the Appearances panel by selecting the brush and setting the attributes, the paint properties, like effects or transparency can be applied to the Blob Brush tool. But this can be only done before the start of drawing.
e. Paths which are created by other tools can be merge by The Blob Brush tool. Before using this tool, you must be ensure that there is no stroke present in the artwork. And select the same color of the fill to set up the Blob Brush tool and a new path. This intersects all the paths that have to be merged. You can not merge paths with strokes. Select the path where a new path is to be merged and disable the option `New Art Has Basic Appearance’, in the Appearances panel. When this option is Deselected the Blob Brush tool uses the attributes of the selected artwork.
Be ensure that the Blob Brush tool and the selected artwork have the same appearances. Intersecting paths of the artwork should be drawn. The attributes of both the Blob Brush Tool and the existing path must be the same and none of them has a stroke. When paths are not merging then ensure these things.
(ii) Blob brush tool options
By double-clicking the Blob Brush tool in the Tools panel Any one of the below options can be selected:
a. Keep select.: All paths which are selected remain selected as you continue to draw. This option enables you to view all paths that are included in the merged path. When you select this option, the Selection Limits Merge option is disabled.
b. Selection limits Merge:
If the artwork is not selected then The Blob Brush can not merges i.e. the artwork must be selected. However, incase if nothing is selected, most matching artwork will be merged.
C. Smoothness.: The amount of smoothing that Illustrator applies to the drawing ranges from 0 to 100 per cent. The smoother the path, the higher the percentage.
d. Size.: The size of the brush is determined by this tool.
Convert Strokes to Compound Paths
By converting outline of the stroke to a compound path, it can be modified. For instance, a stroke can be created with a varied width or can be divided into pieces. Following are the step to do the task:
• Select the object
• Go to Object menu> Path> Outline Stroke
The compound path that results is grouped with the filled object. If you need to modify the compound path, select it with the Group Selection tool or ungroup it from the fill. Then, with the help of Layers panel, identify the contents of a group.

Remove the Fill or Stroke from an Object
Select the object then in the Tools Panel select the Fill box or the Stroke box. This step makes sure that whether the object’s fill or its stroke is to be removed. In the Tools panel > Color or the Swatches panel, click on the None button.
You can also click on the None icon in the Fill menu or the Stroke Color menu in the Control panel

Add Arrowheads to Lines
Arrows work same as like brush strokes, i.e., the color, direction, and location can be modified by arrows along with the line and they cannot be edited individually. To add an arrowhead, click on the object or group or target a layer in the Layers panel. You can add Arrowheads to a Live Paint group as a whole, but not to individual paths within Live Paint groups. Go to Effect menu> Stylize> Add Arrowheads.
For the start and end of the line, by clicking the forward and back buttons below the Start and End arrow boxes, you may choose from the various designs of arrowheads. The order in which you draw the line defines the start and end of the line. To rescale the size of an arrowhead define the percentage in the Scale text box you needed. This arrowhead is scaled relative to the stroke weight of the line. Once finished with your requirement, Click OK,
If you need to remove an arrowhead, in the Appearance panel select the object. Click the Add Arrowheads effect and set the effect to None. To finish the task, click OK.

Select Objects with the Same Fill and Stroke
If you need to select objects that are having same attributes, including fillcolor, stroke color, and stroke weight, do the following:
Go to Select menu> Same > Fill Color, Stroke Color, and Stroke Weight.
Work within a Live Paint group when a face or an edge is selected with the Live Paint Selection tool.
Same objects that are both inside and outside a Live Paint group cannot be selected simultaneously.

(i) If you need to select the objects with the same fill and stroke, select one of the objects in the Control panel and click the Select Similar Objects button. From the menu choose the attributes you need to select.
(ii) If you need to select all the objects which are having same fill or stroke color, choose the color from the Color panel or Swatch panel or Select an object with that fill or stroke color. Then go to Select menu > Same and select Fill Color, Stroke Color, or Fill and Stroke options from the submenu.
(iii) If you need to select all the objects which are having same fill or stroke weight, choose the stroke weight from the Stroke panel or select an object of having same weight. And then, go to Select menu > Same> select Stroke Weight option from the submenu.
(iv) In case if you need to apply the same selection options to different object, select a new object and then go to Select menu > Reselect.
(v) If you need to make the selection based on color, consider the tint of an object. Go to Edit menu > Preferences > General > Select Same Tint # per cent (Windows) or Illustrator > Preferences > General > Select Same Tint # per cent (Mac OS). If you select an object filled with 50 per cent tint of PANTONE Yellow C using this option and go to Select menu > Same > Fill Color option from the submenu. Only 50 percent tint of that color objects will be selected. If this option is deselected, then objects with any tint of PANTONE Yellow C will be selected.

Create Multiple Fills and Strokes
You can use the Appearance panel, if you need to create multiple fills and strokes for the same object. By adding multiple fills and strokes to an object, various captivating effects can be created. For instance, apply an effect to one fill and not to the other or on top of a wide stroke create a one more stroke which is quite narrow.
Choose Add New Fill or Add New Stroke, from the Appearance panel menu. Else, select a fill or stroke in the Appearance panel and click on the Duplicate Selected Item button. Define the color and other properties for the new fill or stroke. The position of the new fill or stroke may be needed to adjust in the Appearance panel. If you create two strokes of different widths, the narrower one will be appear above the wider stroke in the Appearance panel.

Live Paint Bucket Tool
(i) About Live Paint
If you have converted your artwork to Live Paint groups, it allows to color them in the same way as like the traditional way i.e. coloring on canvas or on paper. You can fill not just closed paths, but each enclosed path, with a different color, pattern, or gradient, . You can also color each path segment with a different color. Live Paint makes you enable to use a full range of vector drawing tools of Illustrator. However, it treats all paths you draw, as if they were on the same flat surface. Therefore, it is just like a natural or traditional way to create colored drawings, i.e.no path is in front of or behind it. Instead, by the paths, the drawing surface is divided into different areas. Color can be applied on any of them, regardless of whether the area is bounded by by a single path or by segments of multiple paths. While Painting objects, you will experience just like you are painting using watercolors to paint a pencil sketch or filling a coloring book.
Once a Live Paint group has been created, every single path can be edited. When you adjust the shape of a path, the colors will also get affected. And they will be to the applied to the new regions that are formed by the edited paths.

Edges and faces which can be painted are defined as parts of Live Paint groups. An edge is the portion of a path which intersects other paths. And the face is the area enclosed by one or more edges. faces and stroke edges can be filled. For example a circle with a line drawn across it. The line (edge) dividing the circle is actually creating two faces in the circle, as a Live Paint group. Each edge can be stroked and each face can be fill with a different color by using the Live Paint Bucket tool.

Illustrator performs the operations more quickly because Live Paint has multiprocessors to its advantage.
(ii) Live Paint limitations
If you use Live Paint Tool, the fill and paint attributes are not attached to the actual paths that define them like in other objects. In Live Paint group fill and paint attribute are attached to faces and edges. Because of this, few features and commands are not applicable to paths, or they work differently.
Following are the features and commands that only works on an entire Live Paint group, not on individual faces and edges:
a. Transparency
b. Multiple fills and strokes from the Appearance panel
c. Object > Rasterize

d. Effects
e. Object > Hide
f. Opacity Mask (in the Transparency panel menu) g. Object > Slice > Make
h. Object > Envelope Distort
i. Brushes (using the Appearance panel, if you add a new stroke to the group, you can apply brushes to an entire Live Paint group.)
Features and commands that do not work on Live Paint groups:
a. Graphs
b. Gradient meshes
c. Symbols from the Symbols panel
d. The Magic Wand tool e. Align Stroke options from the Stroke panel
f. Flares
a. Blend
b. Outline Stroke
c. Expand (Instead you can use the Object > Live Paint > Expand command.)
d. Slice
e. Create Gradient Mesh
f. Clipping Mask > Make
Other commands that do not work on Live Paint groups:
a. View > Guides > Make
b. Object > Text Wrap > Make
c. File > Place d. Pathfinder
e. Select > Same >Blending Mode, Fill and Stroke, Opacity, Style, Symbol Instance, or Link Block Series.

(iii) Create Live Paint groups
When you need to fill color for each edge or intersection in a single object, convert the artwork into a Live Paint Group. Some types of objects cannot be directly converted into Live Paint groups, for instance, type, bitmap images and brushes. These objects have to be converted into paths. And if you try to convert an object that has brushes strokes or effects, the complex visual appearance will be lost in the conversion to Live Paint.
However, if you convert the objects to regular paths and then convert it to Live Paint, can retain much of the appearance.
The artwork cannot be revert back to its original state after it is converted to a Live Paint group. Individual components of the group can be expanded or released back to its original paths with no fill and a .5 black stroke.
Following are the steps to create a Live Paint group:
Select one or more paths, compound paths or both. Then, perform one of the following steps:
a. Go to Object menu > Live Paint > Make
b. First select the Live Paint Bucket tool and then Click on the selected object.
After conversion some of the properties like transparency and effect, may be lost.
Some other objects such as type, bitmap images and brushes cannot be converted.
(iv) Convert objects to Live Paint groups
You need to follow one of the below steps for the objects that do not directly convert to Live Paint groups:
a. For type objects, select T, Create Outlines. Then, convert the resulting paths into a Live Paint group.
b. For bitmap images, select Object > Live Trace > Make and Convert to Live Paint.
c. For other objects, select Object > Expand. Then, convert the resulting paths into a Live Paint group.
(v) Expand or Release a Live Paint Group
When you expand a Live Paint group it changes to one or more ordinary paths, which looks like similar to the Live Paint group but are separately filled and stroked. Releasing a Live Paint group will change it into one or more ordinary paths with no fill and a .5-point black stroke. You can select and separately modify these paths, using the Group Selection tool.

Select the Live Paint group followed by any one of the following:
a. Select Object > Live Paint > Expand
b. Select Object > Live Paint > Release
(vi) Select items in Live Paint groups
You can use the Live Paint Selection tool to select individual faces and edges in a Live Paint group. The Selection tool helps to select the entire Live Paint group, whereas the Direct Selection tool helps to select paths inside a Live Paint group. To select the exact face or edge in a easy way while working in a complex document, you can isolate a Live Paint group.
Choosing a Selection tool depends on your requirement as what you want to change in a Live Paint group. For example, on different face, if you need to apply different gradients in a Live Paint group, the Live Paint Selection tool will be required. Whereas to apply the same gradient across the entire Live Paint group, the Selection tool will be needed. If you need to select the entire Live Paint group, click on the Selection tool and then select that group. Within a Live Paint group, to select an original path, with the help of the Direct Selection tool click a path inside the Live Paint group.
(vii) Select faces and edges
When the Live Paint Selection tool is positioned over an edge the pointer changes the edge pointer. Similarly, when it is positioned over a face, it changes to the face pointer and if it is positioned anywhere outside of a Live Paint group, it changes to the x pointer. Do the following, after selecting the Live Paint Selection tool:
a. To select an individual face or edge, click on a face or an edge.
b. Drag a marquee around the items you want to select, to select multiple faces and edges. You can also make partial selections.

c. Double-click a face to select all contiguous faces that are not separated by a painted edge.
d. To select faces or edges with the same fill or stroke, Click on that then go to Select menu> Same and then select Fill Color, Stroke Color or Stroke Weight from the submenu. Or just triple-click on the element.
e. Press down Shift+click or Shift+drag a marquee around the items to add the items to, or remove items from the current selection.
(viii) Isolate a Live Paint group from the rest of the artwork
To isolate a Live Paint group, follow one of the below steps by using the Selection tool:
a. Select the group and in the Control panel, click on the Isolate Selected Group button.
b. Double-click the group
(ix) Modify Live Paint groups
From the existing group You can modify a path by using fills and strokes. As well as with the help of Live Paint Bucket tool, colors can be re-applied as per the requirement.

As shown in the above image, the fill floods across any newly expanded face, when you delete edges. In this example, the path which dividing the circle has been deleted, the circle is filled with one of the fills that is already within the circle. Sometimes you can help guide the results.

The above image shows how Live Paint group looks before and after deleting a path.
In the Swatches panel fill and stroke colors can be saved that were used in Live Paint groups. That way, swatch can be selected and re-applied to the fill or stroke with the help of the Live Paint Bucket tool, if a change loses a color that should be their.
(x) Add Paths to a Live Paint group
As if more paths were added to the Live Paint group, fill and stroke can be applied to the new faces and edges that are created.

The above image displays the example of how a Live Paint group behaves before and after adding a new path and painting the new faces and edges created by it.
To perform the same, any of the below steps can be followed:
a. Select the Selection tool and double-click the Live Paint group, to put the group into isolation mode or from the control panel, click the Isolate Selected Group button. Then draw a new path. The new path will be added to the Live Paint group, then exit the Isolation mode by clicking the Exit Isolation Mode button.
b. Select a Live Paint group and the paths that is going to be added. Then, click Merge Live Paint in the Control panel or go to Object menu > Live Paint > Merge.
c. With selecting the Layers in the panel, drag one or more paths into a Live Paint group.

d. You may find that the Paths inside a Live Paint group may not exactly align with paths outside the Live Paint group that may be similar or identical.
(xi) Paint with the Live Paint Bucket tool
With the current fill and stroke attributes, the faces and edges of Live Paint groups can be painted with the Live Paint Bucket tool. If swatch library is used to color then the tool pointer displays one or three color squares. This represents the selected fill or stroke color and the two colors adjacent to the selected color in the library. By using the left or the right arrow key, adjacent colors can be accessed, as well as the colors next to those and so on.
For this, select the Live Paint Bucket tool, then select the fill color or stroke color and the size that you want in the art.
If a color is selected from the Swatches panel, the pointer changes to display three colors. The two adjacent colors are on either side and the selected color is in the middle. Click the left or right arrow key to use an adjacent color. To paint a face, choose any one function from of the below:
a. Select a face which need to be filled. (when the pointer is over a face, it will change to a halffilled paint bucket, and highlights the lines surrounding the interiors of the fill.)
b. You can drag across multiple faces to paint more than one face at a time.
c. Double-click a face (flood fill) to fill across edges which are not stroked into adjacent faces.
d. To fill all faces which have the same fill, triple-click the face.
e. To paint an edge, double-click the Live Paint Bucket tool and select Paint Strokes.
f. Toggle to the Paint Strokes option by pressing Shift key to and then perform any one of the following steps:
i. To apply stroke, click an edge. (When the pointer come across an edge, the pointer changes to a paint brush, and the edge is highlighted.)
ii. You can drag across multiple edges, to stroke more than one edge at a time,.
iii. Double-click an edge (flood stroke) to stroke all connected edges of the same color.
vi. To stroke all edges of the same stroke, triple-click an edge.
Use Shift key to quickly toggle between painting only strokes and only fills. These changes can be specified in the Live Paint Bucket Options dialog box. In case if you have currently selected both the Paint Fills option and the Paint Strokes option , pressing Shift key will switch to Paint Fills only. However, if you try to fill a small face surrounded by stroked edges, you can do this easily.

a. Live Paint Bucket options
With the help of Live Paint Bucket options, it is easy to choose how to highlight faces and edges. This can be done by moving the tool over the object. You can also use them to paint fills, strokes or both. If you double-click the Live Paint Bucket tool, you will get below options:
i. Paint Fills: To paint the faces of Live Paint groups.
ii. Paint Strokes: To paints the edges of Live Paint groups.
iii. Cursor Swatch Preview: This option will be displayed, whenever a color from the Swatches panel is selected. There will be three colors available in the swatches panel when you select the Live Paint Bucket tool. The first one is the selected fill or stroke color and the two colors adjacent to it, on its right and left.
iv. Highlight: The face or edge over which you move the cursor, this option outlines it. You will get a thick line when the faces will be highlighted and a thin line will appear when the edges will be highlighted.
v. Color: With the help of this option a color can be defined for the highlighted element. You can choose a color from the menu or click the paint swatch to specify a custom color.
vi. Width: To specify the thickness of the highlighted element.
(xii) Close gaps in Live Paint groups
Gaps are the small spaces between the paths. In case if the paint leaks through the desired element then there must be a gap in your artwork. And thus the faces which you do not want to will get colored. Within the Live Paint group gap options can be adjusted by editing existing paths to close the gap or you can create a new path that closes the gap. By overdrawing paths, i.e., extending them past each other, you can avoid gaps in your Live Paint artwork. You can then apply a stroke of ‘None’ to them or select and delete the excess edges that result.
(xiii) Highlight gaps in a Live Paint group
Go to View menu > Show Live Paint Gaps. The option will highlight any gap in your currently selected Live Paint Group, the indication will be based on the settings specified in gap option.
a. Set Live Paint gap options
Go to Object menu > Live Paint > Gap Options and any of the following can be specified:
i Gap Detection: This option helps to prevent paint flowing through gaps. This option may cause for slow performance of Illustrator incase if the Live Paint group is large or complex in nature. If you face such problem then select Close Gaps with Path option for better performance.
ii. Paint Stops At: This option prevents the flow of paint by adjusting the size of the gap to such an extent.

iii. Custom: This option defines a custom Paint Stops at gap size.
iv. Gap Preview Color: This option set color to provide a preview of the gaps in the Live Paint Group. A custom color can be specified by clicking the color next to the Gap Preview Color menu, or select a color from the menu.
v. Close Gaps With Paths: To close gaps, this option creates unpainted paths into the Live Paint group(not simply prevent paint from flowing through the gaps). Notice that as these paths are unpainted, you can see the gaps are still appearing though they have been closed.
vi. Preview: This option provides a preview of the gaps which is based on the selected preview color. Colored lines will be displayed in the gaps.
b. Gap rules for merged Live Paint groups
When you merge Live Paint groups that have different gap settings, the following rules are applicable:
i. If in all groups in the selection the gap detection is off, all gaps are closed and gap detection is turned on with Paint Stops set to Small Gaps. This works when gap detection is off in all groups of the selection.
ii. If gap detection is on and the gap setting is preserved, if gap detection is on and the same for all groups in the selection.
iii. Gaps are closed and the gap settings of the last Live Paint group are preserved, if gap detection is on for that group. If gap detection is mixed for the selection, it is turned on and Paint Stops. Set to Small Gaps, the last group has gap detection turned off.

The brush tool can stylize the appearance of the paths. You can apply a brush stroke while using the Paintbrush tool. Brush strokes can be applied to the already created paths. There are four types of brushes available in Illustrator: a) Calligraphic, b) Scatter, c) Art and d) Pattern. The following effects can be applied with these brushes:

Calligraphic brushes
The strokes of these brushes are similar to those drawn along the center of the path. These are drawn with the an angled point of a calligraphic pen. The Blob Brush tool allows to paint with a calligraphic brush and to fill a shape use the brush stroke. The shape will be automatically expanded and it merges with other same colored filled objects, that are adjacent or intersect in the stacking order.
Scatter brushes
It makes scattered copies of an object, along the path, e.g., a leaf or a butterfly.
Art brushes
These brushes stretch a brush shape or object shape, evenly along the length of the path, e.g., rough charcoal.
Pattern brushes
These brushes paint a pattern which includes individual tiles, and these tiles repeats along the path. In pattern brushes up to five tiles can be included. These are, for inner corner, the sides, outer corner, beginning and end of the pattern.

The above image displays examples of brushes:
A. Calligraphic brush
B. Scatter brush
C. Art brush and
D. Pattern brush
Sometimes Scatter brushes and Pattern brushes generates same effect. However, the main difference is that Scatter brush does not follow the exact path but Pattern brushes do.

In the above image, stars in the left side they remain straight in a Scatter brush but in the right side a Pattern brush bend to follow the path.
3.6.1 Brushes Panel Overview
Brushes and their sub options are displayed within Brushes panel (go to Window menu> Brushes). When you select a brush from the brush library a new brush will be added to the Brushes panel. Each Illustrator file can have various and different sets of brushes in its Brushes panel. The brushes that are created and stored by the user in the Brushes panel will be associated only with that particular file.
(i) Show or hide a type of brush
From the panel menu any of the following can be chosen as a brush:
Show Calligraphic Brushes,
Show Scatter Brushes,
Show Art Brushes and
Show Pattern Brushes
(ii) Change the view of brushes
List View or Thumbnail View can be chosen from the panel menu.
(iii) Change the order of brushes in the Brushes panel
Brushes can be moved by dragging it to a new location. But you can move the brush within the same type. For example, a art brush can be moved within the art brushes not in the Scatter or other brush area.
(iv) Duplicate a brush in the Brushes panel
Click on the Brushes panel menu (top – right) and select Duplicate Brush option or drag the brush onto the New Brush button (second option in the bottom).

(v) Delete the brushes from the Brushes panel
Select the brush which you want to remove and click the Delete Brush button, or go to the Brushes panel menu (top – right) and select Delete Brush option, or go to the Brushes panel menu >Select All Unused, and select brushes that are not used in the document.
(vi) Work with brush libraries
Brush libraries is the collection of preset brushes that come by default with the Illustrator. To use them go to Window menu > Brush Libraries > select a set of brush presets. To browse through their contents and select brushes, you can open multiple brush libraries. The Brushes panel menu also has option to access brush libraries.
If you want to open Brush library automatically at the time of starting Illustrator, Select Persistent from the brush library’s panel menu.
(vii) Copy brushes from a brush library to the Brushes panel
From the brush library’s panel menu > Select Add To Brushes or you can also drag the brushes to the Brushes panel.
(viii) Import brushes into the Brushes panel from another file
Go to Window menu > Brushes Libraries > Other Library > choose the file
(ix) Create new brush libraries
You can save your own created brushes by creating the new brush library. To do this, add the brushes that you want in the Brushes panel and delete those brushes that are not needed further. Then, go to the Brushes panel menu and select Save Brush Library option. The new library file will be placed in one of the following folders, so that next time when you restart Illustrator it will be available in the Brush Libraries menu:
a. In Windows XP: Documents and Settings > User > Application Data > Adobe > Adobe Illustrator Settings > Brush
b. In Windows Vista: User > AppData > Roaming > Adobe > Adobe Illustrator CS6 Settings > Brush
c. In Mac OS: Library > Application Support > Adobe > Adobe Illustrator CS4 > Brush
If the file is placed in a different folder: choose Window > Brush Libraries > Other Library > select the library file, to open the library.
(x) Apply brush strokes

A brush stroke can be applied to a path which is created by the Pen tool, Pencil tool or basic shape tools. Follow any of the any step:
a. Click on the path > Select a brush from the Brush library , the Brushes panel or the Control panel.
b. By dragging a brush onto the path. In case if the brush strokes has already applied to the path, then the new brush will replace the old brush.
If you want to use the original brush stroke settings a different brush, then press Alt key(Windows) or Option key (Mac OS) at the time of clicking the new brush.
(xi) Draw paths and apply brush strokes simultaneously.
Select a brush from the brush library or the Brushes panel. The Paintbrush tool will be selected. Place the pointer to the starting point of the path and drag the cursor to draw the path, it will create a path with a brush stroke. You will find a dotted line follows the pointer, as you drag. Now follow one of the below steps:
a. Release the mouse button after the path obtains the desired shape, in case of an open path.
b. If you need to draw a closed path then press Alt key(Windows) or Option (Mac OS) while dragging. And release the mouse button .
As you draw, Illustrator creates the Anchor points. The length and complexity of the path defines the number of anchor points and as well as by the Paintbrush tolerance settings.
After finishing the drawing, if some adjustment needed,then select the path. Then position the Paintbrush tool on the path and drag until the path gets the desired shape. The technique can also be used to extend a brushed path.
3.6.2 Paintbrush Tool Options
You need to double-click the Paintbrush tool, to set the following options:
(i) Fidelity: This option controls the distance a cursor covers, before a new anchor point will be added to the path. For instance, if the Fidelity value is set to 0.5 then the tool movement of less than 0.5 pixels is not registered. The range of Fidelity is from 0.5 to 5 pixels. The smoother and less complex the path, the higher the value of Fidelity.
(ii) Smoothness: This option defines the amount of smoothing. The percentage of smoothness ranges from 0 to 100. As higher the value, the smoother the path.
(iii) Fill New Brush Strokes: This option applies a fill to the path. In case of closed paths, this option is more useful.
(iv) Keep Selected: This option will keep the path selected, after drawing it.
(v) Edit Selected Paths: This option controls a change in the existing path with the Paintbrush tool.
(vi) Within pixels: At the time of editing the path with the Paintbrush tool, this option determines the distance between the cursor and the path. This option is only available, when the Edit Selected Paths option is activated.
(vii) Remove brush strokes: Select the desired brushed path > click the Remove Brush Stroke button in the Brushes panel(first option at the bottom). Or select Remove Brush Stroke from the Brushes panel menu.
(viii) Convert brush strokes to outlines: If you need to edit individual components of a brushed path, you can convert brush strokes into outlined paths. Select a brushed path then go to the Object menu > Expand Appearance. Illustrator places the components of the expanded path in a group. This group contains paths and subgroups which has the brush stroke outlines within the group.
(ix) Create or modify brushes: you can create new calligraphic, scatter, art and pattern brushes, which will be based on your settings. To create scatter, art and pattern brushes, the artwork created. At the time of creating the artwork for brushes, consider follow guidelines:
a. In the artwork elements like gradients, blends, mesh objects, bitmap images, graphs, other brush strokes, placed files, or masks cannot be added.
b.Type for art and pattern brushes cannot be added in the artwork. Create an outline of the type and then create a brush with the outline to achieve a brush-stroke effect with type.
c. Create up to five pattern tiles for pattern brushes. Depending on the brush configuration, tiles are added to the Swatches panel.
(x) Create a brush: Select the artwork to be used as scatter and art brushes. To create pattern brushes, the artwork for the side tile can also be used. In the Brushes panel > click the New Brush button (or drag the selected artwork to the Brushes panel) > select the type of brush you need to create > click OK > enter a name of the brush. If required set brush options and click OK.
(xi) Modify a brush
a. To modify the options of a brush, double-click the brush in the Brushes panel. After defining the brush options, click OK. You will get a message, if in current document, the brushed paths that use the modified brush are contained. To change pre-existing strokes, click Apply To Strokes. And if you do not want to make changes in pre-existing strokes, click Leave Strokes and apply the modified brush only to new strokes.
b. You can use brushes like scatter, art, or pattern brush into your artwork by dragging the brush into your artwork and make the changes you need, using these brushes. In the Brushes panel, the modified brush is dragged by using the Alt-drag (Windows) or Option-drag (Mac OS) onto the original brush.
c. If you need to modify the path created by brush, go to Brushes panel > select the path and click the Selected Object button. This updation will not effect the corresponding brush.

(xii) Brush options
The options of the brushes can be defined for each separate brush. To make changes, in the Brushes panel, double-click the brush.Options for the colonization are same for all the brushes(Scatter, Art and Pattern).
a. Calligraphic brush options
i. Angle: With this option you can defines the angle of rotation for the brush. A value can be specified in the Angle box or you can drag the arrowhead in the preview.
ii. Roundness: This option defines the roundness of the brush. A value can be specified in the Roundness box or you can drag a black dot in the preview, away from or towards the center. Higher the value, greater the roundness.
Iii. Diameter: This function defines the diameter of the brush. Specify a value in the Diameter box or use the Diameter slider.
Variations in the shape of a brush can be controlled by using the pop-up list to the right of each option. You can choose one of the below options:
• Fixed: A brush with a fixed angle, roundness or diameter is created.
• Random: You can create a brush with customized variations in angle, roundness or diameter. The properties can be varied by specifying the values in the Variation box. For example, the diameter can be 10 or 20, or any value in between these.
• Pressure: Properties of the Brush like angle, roundness, or diameter are based on the pressure of a drawing style. When used with Diameter, this option is most useful. This option is only available with a graphics tablet. In the Variation box, the value to specify the brush characteristic with respect to the original value can be defined. For example, when the Variation value is 10 per cent and the Roundness value is 35 per cent, then the heaviest stroke is 50 per cent approx and the lightest stroke is 25 per cent approx. The more angular the brush stroke, the lighter the pressure.
• Stylus Wheel: A Brush with varied diameter can be created which will be based on manipulation of the stylus wheel. This option is projected to be used with a graphics tablet. This tablet can detect the pen which has a stylus wheel on its barrel.
• Tilt: A Brush with varied angle, roundness or diameter can be created which will be based on the tilt of a drawing stylus. This option will be most useful when it is used with roundness. This option is available only with a graphic tablet, which can detect how the pen is vertically inclined .
• Bearing: A Brush with varied angle, roundness or diameter can be created which will be based on the bearing of the pen. This option will be most useful, when it is used to control the angle of calligraphic brushes. Especially in the case, when you are using the brush like a paintbrush. This option is available only with a graphic tablet, that can detect the direction in which the pen is tilted.

• Rotation: A Brush with varied angle, roundness or diameter can be created which will be based on rotation of the drawing tip of the stylus pen. This option will be most useful, when used to control the angle of calligraphic brushes. Especially, in the case when you are using the brush like a flat pen. However, this option is only available when you have a graphics tablet that can detect the type of rotation.
(xiii) Coloring options for scatter, art and pattern brushes
The colors painted by using a scatter, art or pattern brush, defined by the current stroke color and the coloring method of the brush. From the Brush Options dialog box, choose one of the below options to set the coloring method:
a. None: Colors are displayed as they appear in the brush, on the Brushes panel. To keep the colors in a brush the same as those in the Brushes panel, choose None.
b. Tints: The brush stroke will be displayed in the form of tints of the stroke color. If you use this option, white remains white and portions of the art that are black become like the stroke color. Non black part of the artwork become lots of the stroke color. if spot color is used, which is the same as the stroke Tints, it will generate tints of the spot color. You can use Tints when to paint a brush stroke with a spot color is needed and black and white brushes.
c. Tints and Shades: Brush stroke that will be shown in tints and shades of the stroke color. Colors between black and white in Tints and Shadows, will be turn into a blend from black to white. A single plate can not be printed, when using Tints and Shades with a spot color because of the addition of black color.You can select Tints and Shades for brushes that are in grayscale.
d. Hue Shift: As shown in the Key Color box, in the brush artwork this option uses the key color. The key color is the most prominent color in the art by default. All the elements in the brush artwork, that has same properties like the key color will be converted to the stroke color. Rest of the colors in the brush artwork will be converted to colors that are relevant to the stroke color. Hue Shift maintain the Black, white and grey colors. Select Hue Shift for multiple colored brushes. In case of changing the key color, select the Key Color eyedropper > in the dialog box move the eyedropper to the preview > and select the color that you need to use as the key color. The color in the Key Color box changes as desired. To deselect it, click the eyedropper again.
Scatter brush options
In the Scatter Brush function, below options are available:
a. Size: It controls the size of the objects.
b. Spacing: The amount of space between objects can be specified or control.
c. Scatter: This option controls the closeness of the objects to the path,on either side separately. The higher the value is specified, the farther the objects will be from the path.

d. Rotation:This option controls the angle of rotation of the objects. Path or page related scattered objects, this option sets the angle of rotation. For example, objects point to the top of the page if the page is set to 0 degrees. Objects are tangent to the path, if at the path is set at 0 degrees.
To apply variations in the shape of the brush , you will find options in the pop-up list to the right of each option. Select one of the following options:
a. Fixed: A brush with a fixed size creates scattering, spacing and rotation.
b. Random: To create random scattering, spacing and rotation effect, use variations in size in the brush. The range within which the brush characteristic can vary, depends upon the entered value in the Variation box. For example, the diameter can be 10 or 20, or any value in between.
c.Pressure: A brush with varied roundness, angle or diameter can be created which is based on the pressure of a drawing stylus. This option is available, only with a graphics tablet. A value can be specified in the box which is present at the right side of the screen or slider can be used. Pressure uses the maximum value for the heaviest pressure and the minimum value for the lightest tablet pressure. When this setting has been defined for Diameter, in that case as the heavier the stroke, the larger the objects will be.
d. Stylus Wheel: A brush which varies in diameter can be created by specifying the settings defined for the stylus wheel. This option is only available when you have a graphics tablet, because it has a stylus wheel on its barrel and can detect input from a pen.
e. Tilt: A brush that varies in angle, roundness or diameter can be created which is based on the tilt of a drawing stylus. This option is available, only with a graphics tablet because it can detect how vertically inclined, the pen is.
f. Bearing: A brush which varies in angle, diameter and roundness which will be based on the pressure of a drawing stylus can be created with this option. This option has more importance in case of controlling the angle of brushes. This option is available, only with a graphics tablet that can detect the tilt direction of the pen.
g. Rotation: A brush which varies in angle, diameter and roundness which will be based on the manner in which the drawing stylus pen tip is rotated can be created by using this option. This option has more importance in case of controlling the angle of brushes. This option is available only with a graphics tablet that can detect such rotation.
(xiv) Art brush options
a. Direction: The artwork’s direction is determined in relation to the line. In case of setting the direction, click an arrow in such a way that the end of the stroke will be the left side of the art. Same manner should be implemented to the right, top and bottom sides of the art.
b. Proportions: Proportions will be preserved in scaled art.
c. Width: The width of the art will be modified, and it will be in relative to the original width.
d. Flip Along or Flip Across: The rotation of the art changes-in relation to the line.

(xv) Pattern brush options
a. Scale: The size of tiles is modified which are relative to their original size.
b. Spacing: The space between tiles is modified.
c. Tile buttons: With the help of this option, various patterns can be applied to the different parts of the path. To defile for the tile, select a tile button and choose a pattern swatch from the scroll list. Repeat the same steps as per the requirement for other tiles.
The pattern tiles must be applied to the Swatch panel, if you need to specify the setting to pattern brush options.Once you have created a pattern brush, pattern tiles can be deleted from the Swatches panel.
You need to double click the Paintbrush to, to set the following options:
a. Blending modes
With the help of this option you can blend colors of the objects with the colors of underlying objects. You can also blend colors in different ways, with this option. The objects that are below the group on which the blending mode is applied, can be seen. The effect of blend will appear in which manner should be considered in terms of the following:
i. The blend color: The color that the selected layer, object, or group has
ii. The base colon the color that the artwork already has
iii. The resulting color: the color of the final blend

Above image displays the object with Normal blending (above) as compared with the Hard Light blending mode (below).
In this image, we can observe: A. Base colors of underlying objects at 100 per cent opacity B.

Blend color in top most object C. After the application of the Hard Light blending mode to the lower object.
In Illustrator you will find following blending modes:
a. Normal: This is the default mode. It does not interacts with the base color while painting the selection with the blend color.
b. Darken: This option selects the darker color whether it is blend color or the base color as the resulting color. The Area which is darker than the blend color does not change, though the lighter area than the blend color get replaced.
c. Multiply: This option always results in a darker color, when the base color will be multiplied by the blend color. White color will always get uneffected multiplied with any color. And in case of Black, the resulting color would be black. It’s just like on page drawing with multiple magic markers.
d. Color Burn: The base color will be darkened to reflect the blend color. White color does not get any effect.
e. Lighten: This option selects the lighter color as the resulting color, whether it is blend color or the base color. Areas which are darker as compared with the blend color will be replaced, whereas the lighter than the blend color will not be changed.
f. Screen: The inverse of the base and the blend colors will multiply by this option. It always produces lighter color in the result. While color will not get any effect, while black leaves the color unchanged. Projecting images with multiple slides on top of each other have exactly the similar effect, as that produced by this option.
g. Color Dodge: The base color is lighten to reflect the blend color, but in case of black color, there is no changes.
h. Overlay: This option multiplies or produces effect like screen mode, depends on the base color.
i. Soft Light: Based on the blend color, this option darkens or lightens the colors. The resulting effect is like shilling a diffused spotlight on the artwork.
j. Hard Light: Based on the blend color, this option multiplies or screens the colors. The result will be like shining a harsh spotlight on the artwork. In case of if blend color is more dark than 50 per cent grey, the artwork is darkened. This plays very important role when you are adding shadows to the artwork. If the blend color (light source) is more light than 50 per cent grey, the artwork is lightened just like it is screened. This plays very important role when you are adding highlights to artwork. The artwork results in pure black or white if pure black or white color is used.
k. Difference: Based on the brightness value, it subtracts either the base color from the blend color or vice versa. When black color is blended, it does not get any effect while it inverts the values of the base color when blended with white color.
l. Exclusion: If you use this option, it will produce a resulting color effect same as Difference mode, but the will be lower.Balck color will not get any effect and, but blending with white inverts the components of the base color.

m. Hue: This option produces a resulting color with the hue of the blend color and the luminance and saturation of the base color.
n. Saturation: This option will saturate the blend color and the luminance and the hue of the base color. Gray color which does has saturation, will not get any effect with this mode.
o. Color: This option creates the hue and saturation of the blend color and applies luminance of the base color. It plays important role in the case of monochrome artwork and if you need to preserve grey levels where you need to tint color artwork.
p. Luminosity: This option creates the luminance of the blend color and the hue and saturation of the base color. With this mode, you can invert the effect as compared to that of the color mode. Spot colors are not blended with the Difference, Exclusion, Hue, Saturation, Color and Luminosity modes. A black is designated as 100 per cent.
(xvi) Change the blending mode of artwork
Select a layer in the Layers panel or an object or group. If you need to change the blending mode of a fill or stroke, select the object, then in the Appearance panel select the fill or stroke. In the Transparency Panel, select a blending mode from the pop-up menu.
You can also isolate the blending mode to a targeted layer or group, to leave objects beneath unaffected. To do this, using a blending mode, the target icon is selected to the right of a group or layer in the Layers panel that contains an object. Select Isolate Blending in the Transparency panel > Select Show Options from the Transparency panel menu, if the Isolate Blending option is not visible.

The above image shows a group (star and circle) with the Isolate Blending option deselected (left) and selected (right).
If you need to select all objects with similar blending mode, click outside the artboard (deselect all) and select the blending mode in the Transparency panel. Or select an object on which blending mode is applied and go to Select menu> Same > Blending Mode.

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